ISSN 2300-1674

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No. 2/2017

K. MADEJ, R. JACHYM
Welding of High Strength Toughened Structural Steel S960QL
The article discusses the effect of the thermal conditions applied during the MAG welding of steel S960QL and the mutual annealing of runs on the mechanical properties as well as on the macro and microstructure of welded joints made using various values of cooling time t8/5. The research described in the article also involved the comparison of the above-named results with those obtained during a thermal simulation. In addition, the article presents the test results concerning the examination of the coarse and fine-grained areas of the HAZ of welded joints. The test results made it possible to optimise the value of cooling time t8/5 when welding steel S960QL.

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M. BANASIK, M. URBACZYK
Laser + MAG Hybrid Welding of T-Joints
The article presents the possibilities of the hybrid welding (laser + MAG) of T-joints, discusses primary technological conditions of the HLAW process as well as discusses the possibilities of using the HLAW method when making various types of T-joints in various configurations of interface preparation, joint positioning and laser beam-MAG welding torch alignment.

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J. CZUCHRYJ
Effect of Excessively Wide Welds on the Fatigue Service Life of Welded Joints
Many a time, welded joints contain a welding imperfection having the form of an excessively wide butt weld with reference number 5212 in PN-EN ISO 6520-1. The fact that the effect of the above-named imperfection on the service life of welded joints had not been identified before inspired research aimed to fill the above-named gap. The study discusses the results of fatigue tests of welded joints having excessively wide welds and contains conclusions based on the test results. In general, the presence of welding imperfection 5212 in welded joints is highly undesirable.

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S. PARZYCH
Results of Non-Destructive and Destructive Tests of Welded Joints Made of Heat-Resistant Cast Steel GX40NiCrSiNb35-25 in Welding Procedure Qualification
The article presents test results concerning the welding procedure qualification of the production welding of heat-resistant cast steel GX40NiCrSiNb35-25 (1.4852) performed using filler metal WZ 25 35 Zr according to PN-EN ISO 14343. The welding procedure qualification test was performed in accordance with PN-EN ISO 11970. The test joint made using the TIG method (141) was subjected to non-destructive and destructive tests enabling the identification of the mechanical properties of the joint. The test results satisfied the requirements contained in PN-EN ISO 11970 and constituted the basis enabling the preparation of a related welding procedure qualification report.

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A. SAWICKI
Hybrid Models of Electric Arc with Improved Dynamic Characteristics in Wide Ranges of Changes in Bipolar Current Value
The article discusses the limitations of the Mayr and Cassie linear models and of the Mayr generalized model accompanying the precise mapping of electric arc column within a wide range of changes in bipolar current. The research involved the development of new non-linear hybrid models of arc by the association of linear and non-linear models, the creation of arc hybrid macromodels and the verification (utilising the MATLAB-Simulink software programme) of the efficiency of dynamic voltage-current characteristics through simulations of processes in a simple circuit with electric arc.

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R. KACZMAREK
Joint Geometry Indications in Conventional Ultrasonic Tests and Phased Array Tests
The article presents issues concerning the formation of root geometry indications in conventional ultrasonic tests and in the Phased Array tests. In addition, the article describes the manner enabling the verification of sources of indications allowing their proper classification both in classical and Phased Array tests. The article contains results of T-joint-related tests performed using the Phased Array technique and depicting the scale of geometry indications when testing welded joints. The article is addressed to NDT personnel performing ultrasonic tests.

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V.V. KNYSZ, S.A. SOLOVEJ, L.I. NYRKOVA, S.A OSADCZUK
Effect of High Humidity and Neutral Salt Mist on the Fatigue Service Life of T-Joints
The article concerns the experimental testing of the long-lasting effect of surrounding environmental conditions (high air humidity and neutral salt mist) on the characteristics of the fatigue service life of T-joints in structures made of low-alloy steel 15HSND. The article-related research involved metallographic tests of the weld and of the heat affected zone (HAZ) of welded joints subjected to the 1200-hour long effect of humidity (in the G4 humidity chamber) and salt mist (in the KST-1 salt mist chamber). The metallographic tests made it possible to calculate the degree of corrosive effect and the entire area affected by corrosion, the depth of corrosion stain and corrosion pit penetration in the surface layer of the metal of the fillet welds and the HAZ of T-joints. The research also involved the identification of the characteristics of the fatigue service life of welded joints subjected to the long lasting effect of a corrosive environment.

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No. 1/2017

M. BANASIK, M. URBACZYK
Laser + MAG Hybrid Welding of Various Joints
The article presents the possibilities of hybrid welding (laser + MAG arc), particularly as regards the welding of butt joints. The article discusses technological conditions and equipment configurations when welding sheets having the same and different thicknesses both in PA and PC positions. In addition, the article presents exemplary welding of multipart joints (nodes of three sheets) and angle joints using the hybrid method as well as the possibilities of combining the HLAW method with other methods.

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J. RYKAA
Use of Plasma Method Variants When Welding Sheets Made of Steel X6CrNi18-10
The article presents the course and results of tests aimed to identify the effect of the PAW (plasma welding) method variant (with cold wire and without the filler metal) or PPAW method (flux-cored) on the shape of the weld, the tensile strength and the aesthetics of butt joints made of 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 mm thick sheets in steel X6CrNi18-10. The research involved bend tests, macro and microscopic metallographic tests as well as the tensile tests of joints. The tests revealed that the use of various variants of the plasma welding method enabled the obtainment of welded joints representing the same quality, yet varying significantly in terms of aesthetics and mechanical properties.

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S. STANO, M. RӯASKI, A. GRAJCAR
Effect of Braze Welding Process Parameters on the Structure and Mechanical Properties of Joints Made of Steel CPW 800. Part II: Laser Braze Welding
Presently, the reduction of the kerb weight of products is obtained by replacing previously used structural materials with new materials characterised by more favourable operating parameters. Significant mechanical properties of steels elements are primarily obtained through the precise heat treatment following cold rolling or, in cases of hot-rolled products, by using thermo-mechanical treatment. The problems related to the joining of the above-named materials using welding methods are connected with their high sensitivity to intense thermal cycles accompanying welding processes. The first part of the article presented the results of technological tests concerning the effect of arc braze welding processes. The second part of the article presents the effect of laser braze welding on the mechanical and structural properties of joints made of complex phase steel CPW 800.

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. RAKOCZY, A. ZIELISKA-LIPIEC, L. TUZ, T. GRAL
Nd-YAG Laser Beam-Induced Liquation Cracking in Selected Nickel-Based Superalloys
MAR-M247 and Rene 77 belong to intermetallic phase Ni3(Al, Ti) precipitation hardened nickel alloys widely used in the aerospace and power engineering industries. Because of their susceptibility to cracking, the above-named alloys are characterised by limited weldability. In the tests described in this article, the surfaces of the above-named superalloys were affected by a laser beam having identical parameters. Afterwards, the test results concerning the individual susceptibility to Nd-YAG laser beam-induced liquation cracking were compared. The stereoscopic microscopic observations revealed differences indicating the significantly greater crack susceptibility of superalloy MAR-M247. The characteristics of the materials indicated that the above differences were connected with the significantly more complex microstructure resulting from the segregation of alloying elements during crystallisation. The scanning microscopic examination revealed the presence of liquation cracks in the HAZ located along partially melted interdendritic areas.

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T. B. MAJDANCZUK, W. M. ILJUSZENKO, A. N. BONDARENKO
Effect of Modifying and Alloying Elements on the Structure and Properties of Surfaced Layers Made of High-Tin Bronze
The article discusses the effect of some modifying and alloying elements on the structural, mechanical and operational properties of high-tin bronze used for the submerged arc surfacing of steels. The research-related tests enabled the determination of optimum contents of the above-named elements ensuring the improvement of mechanical and operational properties through changes in the shape and structural constituent dimensions of the metal subjected to surfacing. In addition, the research revealed the favourable effect of a nickel addition (up to 2%) on the reduction of high-tin bronze penetration, on grain boundaries, in the steel base.

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A. SAWICKI
Integral Method Enabling the Determination of the Parameters of the Mayr and Generalised Mayr Models of Electric Arc Excited in the Circuit Using the Sinusoidal Current Source
The article presents the primary properties of the Mayr mathematical models, the generalised Mayr model and the Pentegov model of electric arc as well as indicates the limited possibilities of the Mayr model in the accurate representation of arc dynamic characteristics in areas where current passes through the zero. The above-named difficulties can be eliminated using the generalised Mayr model. The article describes an integral method enabling the experimental identification of parameters of the generalised Mayr model and of the Mayr model of arc powered by a source having a sinusoidal wave. The above-named method was verified numerically by simulating processes in a simple electric circuit with macromodels of undisturbed arc.

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