ISSN 2300-1674

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List of reviewers of scientific papers printed in 2013

No. 6/2013

J. RYKAA, T. PFEIFER - Robotised CMT welding of 6xxx series aluminium alloys
The article presents the use of low-energy and standard welding methods (CMT and MIG-Pulse) for joining elements made of hard-to-weld 6xxx series aluminium alloys as well as the course of technological tests aimed at the determination of the usability of the CMT and MIG-Pulse methods for welding butt joints made of 2.0 mm thick sheets. The work also discusses the basic difficulties related to welding 6xxx series aluminium alloys, presents the specific character of welding by means of typical and low arc energy methods as well as presents the selected results and analysis of macro/microscopic metallographic tests and strength tests of the welded joints. The authors indicate that CMT welding ensures high quality and aesthetics of welded joints made of aluminium alloys regarded as difficult to weld.

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M. St. WGLOWSKI, C. HAMILTON, St. DYMEK - Numerical modelling of Friction Stir Processing of AlSi9Mg aluminium casting alloy
The work presents the assumptions of a complex numerical thermo-kinetic model for Friction Stir Processing. The model makes it possible to calculate the under-tool temperature of the surface of a material being modified as well as to determine lines corresponding to the shifting of a material modified during FSP. The calculation results indicate the influence of a tool rate of rotation and of a tool travel rate on the concentration of lines and on the surface temperature. The article also reveals that a material being modified is composed of two zones in which the material is shifted, i.e. the primary and secondary zone.

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K. KRASNOWSKI - Effect of heat treatment of S420MC steel joints on their mechanical properties and fatigue strength
The article presents the results of tests focused on the effect of stress relief annealing on the mechanical properties and fatigue strength of joints made of S420MC steel grade belonging to a group of thermo-mechanically control processed steels. The article contains the description of the aforesaid tests and presents the results of the basic mechanical tests as well as of internal stress measurements. The text also presents information about fatigue categories experimentally determined for the four most popular types of welded joints at their initial state and after stress relief annealing. In addition, the article informs that the stress relief annealing process recommended by German guidelines SEW 088 does not result in an increase of the fatigue strength of S420MC steel welded joints.

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H. PASEK-SIUREK, M. PIĄTEK, T. SZEBESZCZYK - Welding variables monitoring system in the FSW method FSW weld monitor
The article describes the basic principles of the FSW method, its advantages and limitations, discusses tests and process analyses developed in various research programmes as well as presents the design and measuring capacity of a system for measuring and recording torque and pressure force in the FSW method developed at Instytut Spawalnictwa.

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A. SAWICKI - Approximations of arc voltage-current characteristics in electrotechnological devices
The usefulness of different voltage-current characteristics is defined for describing different properties (static, dynamic, energy, frequency etc.) of an arc in the electrical circuits of electrotechnological devices. The influence of different physical factors on the shape of characteristics has been analysed. The study presents the analytical forms of functions developed for approximating the static and commutative characteristics of an arc in AC plasma torches with a pre-set parameter in the form of a gas mass stream and/or a plasma column length.

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No. 5/2013

J. MATUSIAK, J. WYCIŚLIK - Assessment of fume and chemical hazard in work environment during welding and braze welding of various construction materials by innovative methods
It has been presented selected results of investigations oriented on identification, analysis and assessment of fume and chemical hazard which occur during application of innovative methods of joining various construction materials as well as on disclosure of the possibility of optimization of these methods in respect of the improvement in work conditions and the increase in work safety during fabrication of welded structures in different industrial branches. The results of the project Assessment of fume and chemical hazard in work environment during joining various construction materials by innovative methods as the action supporting the formation of safe work conditions executed under the Long-term National Programme Improvement in safety and work conditions have been given as well.

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St. MARZEC, J. MATUSIAK, J. NOWICKA, J. WYCIŚLIK - Optical radiation in welding and braze welding by CMT and ColdArc methods
It has been presented results of measurements of UV and IR radiation and the radiance of visible light during welding of X5CrNi18-10 chromium-nickel austenitic steel and X6Cr17 chromium ferritic steel by CMT and ColdArc methods as well as during braze welding of DX 54D and DP600X steels covered with protective layer of pure zinc or zinc-iron alloy. It has been shown that the optical radiation intensity increases together with the increase of welding current and arc voltage. Moreover, the radiation intensity is affected by welding/braze welding methods and the kind of shielding gases whereas the influence of parent materials kind is difficult to assess.

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M. OMOZIK - Creep-resisting structural steels for the power industry - the past and the present time
The article provides information about the condition of domestic and global power industries in the context of the thermal efficiency of existing power systems. The work also presents the tendencies of the development of power systems operating at supercritical steam parameters. The article shows basic requirements for advanced structural materials intended for use in power industry machinery and also presents diagrams showing the development of successive creep-resisting steel generations with a ferritic base and of austenitic steels. The article provides approximate chemical compositions of selected steels from individual groups differing in chromium content. Attention is also given to the dependence of welding process technological parameters for joining steels designed for higher temperatures on the chemical composition of the steels and the thickness of components being welded. The conclusion contains a statement that the continuous introduction of new steel grades on the market is accompanied by the continuous use of steels belonging to older generation grades such as steels of 13CrMo4-5 and 10CrMo9-10 grades

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M. St. WGLOWSKI, Y. M. ZHANG - Usability of welding arc electromagnetic radiation in diagnostics of MAG welding processes
The study presents ideas and test results related to an unconventional method of MAG welding process monitoring making use of welding arc radiation in the visible range. The experiments conducted indicate the direction of further research on the phenomenon of welding arc radiation and the possibilities of using it for on-line monitoring of other welding processes. The recording of spectral distribution was made using a spectrophotometric card. The stability of a welding process was assessed using the least squares method. The recorded signals were modelled using polynomials and the optimum polynomial order was selected using the F-test method. The study presents the impact of welding current intensity and of a filler metal type on the distribution of a welding arc visible radiation spectrum.

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A. ŚWIERCZYSKA The influence of technological factors on diffusible hydrogen content in rutile flux-cored wires weld deposit
The presence of diffusible hydrogen is one of the conditions for generation of cold cracks in welded joints and contributes to their porosity. In the work it was attempted to determine the gravity of selected technological factors in formation of diffusible hydrogen in weld metal what would make possible to forecast its content through changes of welding parameters. The statistical analysis of experimental results gathered during literature survey referring to the considered issue enabled to assess the gravity of the impact of seven factors on the amount of diffusible hydrogen in weld deposit of H10 class rutile flux-cored wire and to develop for them three forms of statistical models.

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J. CZUCHRYJ, A. PILARCZYK Inspection of welded joints leaktightness by means of bubble test with vacuum cap
Testing of leaktightness of welded joints with the use of bubble test with vacuum cup and the principles of such a testing by means of the UKS device have been characterized. It has been presented also the UKS device design and the requirements concerning such an inspection. The UKS device satisfies the requirements specified in the PN EN 1779 and PN EN 1593 standards.

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No. 4/2013

J. MATUSIAK, J. WYCIŚLIK - Analysis of influence of material-technological conditions of alternating polarity MIG welding of aluminium alloys on welding fumes emission
It has been presented laboratory experiments on the influence of material-technological conditions of welding of four grades of aluminium alloys, namely EN AW 5251, EN AW 6082, EN AW 2017 A and EN AW 5754, by innovative methods such as AC Pulse and Cold Process, on the pollutants emission level. Investigation methodics has been discussed, the test stand has been presented and the relationships between the dust and gases emission quantity and the kind of aluminium alloy subjected to welding, the grade of filler metal and current-voltage prameters of welding have been analysed in detail. The dust emitted during welding of aluminium alloys by conventional MIG method has been compared to that generated during welding by pulse MIG, double pulse MIG and by low heat input methods (CMT, ColdArc, AC Pulse and Cold Process). The purpose of the investigation was to determine a method of aluminium alloys welding which would be an advantageous alternative to the above mentioned methods in respect of work environment protection and reduction in pollutants emission.

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M. OMOZIK - Structure and plastic properties of HAZ in 13HMF steel after operation over 130 000 hours subjected to simulation welding thermal cycles
Structural regions such as CGHAZ, FGHAZ, ICCGHAZ and SRCGHAZ in steel welded joints are characterized. Based on the simulation technique, different HAZs in 13HMF steel after long-lasting service were simulated, imitating the influence of multiple welding thermal cycles (multilayer welding). Results of notch toughness and hardness tests as well as microstructure examination of individual simulated HAZ regions in 13HMF steel have been discussed.

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O. BARRERA, T. PFEIFER, A. AK - Structure of welded dissimilar joints of steel and nickel alloy
Results of research on the determination of the structure of the interface between AISI 8630 M steel and Inconel 625 butter layer have been presented. Special attention has been paid to the results obtained by Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy within the scope of Mintweld Project.

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A. KISZKA, A. SASISKI - Determination of reasons for crack generation in hinge welded elements
The purpose of the work was to find the reason for the damage of welded pins in hinge elements and to give a proposal of an action which would reduce the occurrence of breaking off the pins from hinges. In order to develop the welding procedure providing the required and repeatable quality of welded joints it was analysed the joining technology used till now as well as the joint design. Moreover, it has been made macroscopic examination, hardness tests and observations of damaged element fractures. On the basis of the investigations it has been developed the welding procedure ensuring the required joints quality.

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A. CZUPRYSKI, J. GRKA, J. ŚLOSARCZYK - Improvement in operating properties of elements of mining machinery in coal-mines
It has been presented a possibility of improvement in operating properties of mine skip buckets in drawing engines, made of S355 steel, by welding of lining elements made of Hardox 450 steel to places mostly exposed to abrasive-dynamical degradation.

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A. SAWICKI - Damping factor function in AC electric arc models.
Part 3. Static and dynamic properties of the arc with intense cooling in plasma torches
The importance of models of arcs with intense cooling has been shown in AC plasma torch design and usage. The influence of gas mass stream that washes plasma column on the shape of static and dynamic arc characteristics has been considered. The selected effects of functioning the high frequency auxiliary generator, leading mainly to stabilization of the arc and linearization of its characteristics have been analyzed.

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No. 3/2013

T. PFEIFER, L. AUCOTT, A. AK - Testing of solidification cracking susceptibility of MAG welded overlays on S355JR steel using a Transvarestraint test
Application of the Transvarestraint test to assessment of solidification cracking susceptibility of overlay welds made by MAG method on S355JR steel has been presented. A specific test rig enabling to apply different strain of the test piece with high speed was designed. In the course of the research the weld pool temperature history was registered, cracking qualification was done and the examination of crack opening and HAZ using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy was carried out. Solidification cracking temperature range of this material system was determined.

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W. JAMROZIK, M. FIDALI Application of image fusion to identification of welding imperfections
It has been presented the issues concerning the application of images fusion registered in visible and infrared radiation for diagnostics of MIG/MAG processes. The sequences of visible and infrared images visualizing the arc burning during performing the weld were examined. Recorded during experiments image sequences were subjected to fusion and next to analysis in order to obtain diagnostic signals. On the basis of selected features of diagnostic signals it was carried out the classification of the welding process state and its results were compared with those obtained for diagnostic signal features determined independently for visible and infrared images. The results show that the application of images fusion enables to identify effectively various welding imperfections forming in welding processes.

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A. SAWICKI - Damping factor function in AC electric arc models.
Part 2: Damping factor function in universal electric arc models with moderate cooling
Nonlinear function of the heat processes damping factor in thermal column plasma have been introduced to modified mathematical models of the AC electric arc. This way, universal arc models with moderate cooling and constant geometric sizes, using static characteristics, have been created. Similar method has been used to hybrid arc models with variable column length connecting Berger and Kulakov models. It has been proposed the introduction of nonlinear damping factor function to modified Voronin model using static characteristics. Thereby the extended range of current for application of these models has been achieved.

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R. KRAWCZYK, P. WOJTAS, K. POCH - Comparative assessment of selected welding imperfections in VT, PT and MT methods
The issues connected with assessment of sensitivity in selected NDT methods are considered. In particular, the attention has been paid to the tests which make it possible to detect any imperfection of surface, i.e. visual testing, liquid-penetrant and magnetic-powder method. The aim of the studies was to reveal the analogy and differences between results obtained from series of tests (VT, PT and MT).

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M. STACHURSKI - Non-destructive testing of helically welded pipes made of thermomechanically rolled materials used for sending of combustibles
In the first part of the paper it has been presented the short information on methods of fabrication of helically welded pipes used for transporting of combustibles. In the second one it has been given the NDT methods used during inspection of the pipes in production plants. In the next parts it has been described the NDT methods for steel pipes focusing first of all on visual, ultrasonic and radiographic ones. The paper has been ended with the information about prospects of gas industry development in Poland and in the world.

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No. 2/2013

M. St. WGLOWSKI - Electrolytic etching in welding metallography
It has been discussed the process of electrolytic etching of metals and possibilities of its application to welding technology. The attention has been drawn to such process parameters as: potential difference, current density, electrolyte temperature, electrolyte stirring and polishing time as well as to their influence on the metallographic specimens quality. The procedure of preparation of metallographic specimens to the electrolytic etching process has been described. It has been indicated also the necessity of application of appropriate equipment which will provide stability of etching process parameters. Selected results of electrolytic etching of welded joints and parent materials have been presented.

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J. HILKES, V. GROSS - Welding of CrMo steels for power generation and petrochemical applications - past, present & future
The paper provides an overview of the development and applications of the classic CrMo, the new CrMoV steels all the way up to 12Cr1Mo. Also, the corresponding welding consumables for the power generation and the petrochemical industry have been discussed. Reference has been made to the various international material standards that are applicable and the specific properties and requirements as set by todays industries.

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A. KURC-LISIECKA - Forming of the texture, structure and mechanical properties of cold-rolled AISI 304 steel
It has been determined the influence of the plastic strain in the cold rolling process on forming of the texture, structure and mechanical properties of AISI 304 steel. The texture analysis was carried out basing oneself on pole figures and three-dimensional function of orientation pattern. Diffraction phase analysis and magnetic examination have shown the presence of α martensite in the steel structure after deformation. The volume fraction of martensite grew larger together with the increase of the degree of deformation. The plastic strain induced γ → α martensitic transformation in the whole deformation range. It was observed the development of both austenite and martensite texture. On the basis of mechanical tests it has been found that together with the increase of the plastic strain amount in AISI 304 steel its mechanical properties and hardness grow while its plastic properties decrease.

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O. K. MAKOWIECKAJA - Technological innovations - a basis for the increase of competitiveness of welding industry in the USA
It has been presented the tasks and issues in the field of materials joining. The model of development and implementation to production of technological innovations proposed by the Edison Welding Institute in the USA has been analysed.

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A. SAWICKI - Damping Factor Function in AC Electrical Arc Models.
Part 1: Heat Process Relaxation Phenomena, their Approximations and Measurement
The article is dedicated to technical evaluation of knowledge about arc damping factor function. Special attention is paid to its specific value - the time constant, which decides about the functioning quality of electrotechnological devices and electrical apparatus. Factors affecting heat process relaxation phenomena in electrical arc have been described. Approximation possibilities of energetic process damping factor functions in electrical arc have been examined. Experimental methods of determining dynamic parameters of AC arc have been described.

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No. 1/2013

M. St. WGLOWSKI, C. HAMILTON - Investigation into friction stir processing of surface layers
It has been presented the results of investigations into friction stir processing carried out on the AlSi9Mg aluminium casting alloy. The investigations referred to the determination of the influence of process conditions on the moment of force affecting the tool and on the temperature in the stirring zone. The results of the investigations have shown that the increase in the rotational speed of the tool causes the decrease in the moment affecting it and the increase in the temperature in the tool area. It has been shown also that the increase in the rate of the tool travel brings about the increase in the moment of force and small changes in the temperature. The experimental measurement results have been compared to numerical calculation ones.

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S. STANO, M. BANASIK, M. URBACZYK - Impact of the position of a laser beam - wire system in relation to a material being welded and of the filler metal feeding rate on the stability of laser welding with a filler metal
It has been presented fragmentary results of the investigations into the laser welding process with addition of filler metal in the form of wire, concerning the welding process stability depending on selected geometrical parameters of the set: wire tip-laser beam-material subjected to welding. It has been found that the welding process runs steadily when the laser beam impacts directly on the tip of the wire fed to the welding area and the wire tip is positioned directly on the surface of the material being welded. It has been determined the manner of liquid metal transfer from the wire tip to the liquid metal pool forming around the capillary.

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P. GOTKOWSKI, R. JACHYM, H. FRYC, D. FRYC - Testing of resistance spot welding procedures for fabrication of railway car subassemblies
It has been discussed one of the manners of the manufacture of wagon body subassemblies. The results of testing of resistance spot welded joints in X2CrNi12 steel have been presented. The joints were made for different thickness combinations which occurred in the wagon body structure. The test results show that the joints made in this way meet the requirements of PN-EN 15085 series.

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A. LISIECKI, D. JANICKI, A. GRABOWSKI, K. GOOMBEK - Properties of Ti/TiN composite layers produced by in situ method with the use of high power diode laser
It has been described the results of testing of the structure and properties of surface Ti/TiN composite layers produced in situ in consequence of remelting of the surface layer of the Ti6Al4V titanium alloy plate by means of high power diode laser under pure nitrogen (laser gas nitriding). The influence of the parameters of the laser gas nitriding process on the microstructure of surface layers, microhardness, abrasive wear resistance of the metal-metal type and erosive wear resistance at different glancing angles of the erodent has been analyzed.

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A. KISZKA, T. PFEIFER - Technological investigation into variable polarity GMA welding of HCT 600X ZF 100 RBO high strength steel
It has been presented the results of the technological investigation into the innovative GMA welding method with the use of variable polarity AC during welding of HCT 600X ZF 100 RBO high strength steel. The results of mechanical testing and metallographic examination of welded joints have been given. The influence of electrode negative (EN ratio) on the quality of welded joints and particularly on the fusion depth and HAZ width has been analyzed. The prospective fields of commercial application of innovative welding techniques have been discussed.

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