ISSN 2300-1674

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List of reviewers of scientific papers printed in 2014

No. 6/2014

J. DWORAK - Laser Overlay Welding of Graded Layers
Graded materials are increasingly commonly used as structural materials in many advanced engineering structures. These materials are usually characterised by the gradual change of a specific functional parameter, usually in the direction of thickness. The article presents the general characteristics of graded metals and their manufacturing methods. On the basis of selected results of authors own research it was possible to determine the possibility of making graded layers using powder-based laser overlay welding.

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L. TUZ, K. PACIKIEWICZ, E. TASAK, J. ADAMIEC, T. GRAL - Evaluation of Selected Austenitic Stainless Steels Hot Crack Susceptibility
The article presents the results concerning hot crack susceptibility of selected steels having an austenitic structure. The tests were based on the analysis of the chemical composition of these steels and utilising special stations for the Transvarestraint tests and the Blanchet method. During the tests it was possible to observe cracks in the liquid-solid area. The results obtained indicate the existence of an area free from solidification cracks for a certain strain value at a pre-set welding rate. It was also possible to observe the absence of a distinct boundary between such areas, which was reflected in the crack length.

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J. PIKUA, K. KWIECISKI, G. POREMBSKI, A. PIETRAS - FEM Simulation of Check Valve Ball FSW Process
The article presents results of the FEM simulation involving friction stir welding (FSW) of check valve ball elements. The tests involved the obtainment of temperature fields, information about stresses and displacements during the process and about residual stresses and strains following the cooling of elements welded. The knowledge obtained concerning process thermal conditions and that concerning the field of stresses and strains was used to design clamps of a station intended for welding check valve ball elements.

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R. KACZMAREK, R. KRAWCZYK - Analysis of Bevelling Angle Effect on Incomplete Side Fusion Detectability in Ultrasonic Non-Destructive Testing Method
The article presents the analysis of guidelines contained in PN-EN ISO 17640 related to ultrasonic tests of welded joints with reference to adjusting the angle of beam insertion into a weld fusion line as well as the results of tests investigating the bevelling angle effect on the amplitude of echo bounced off the bevelled surface simulating the echo bounced off incomplete side fusions. The tests were conducted using a MWB70-4 probe and three specimens bevelled at angles of 20, 25 and 30. The article discusses the selection of a beam insertion angle on the detectability of flat discontinuities located on the weld fusion line, inclusive of incomplete side fusions. The article is addressed to NDT personnel, in particular to workers performing ultrasonic testing of welded joints.

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A. SAWICKI, M. HALTOF - Testing the Effect of Column Length Disturbances on the Method used for Determining the Pentegov Model Describing the Electric Arc of the Ayrton Type Static Characteristics
The research involved the determination of physical factors affecting the generation of arc column length disturbances in electrotechnological devices. The article contains a justification related to the selection of the Pentegov model for representing the dynamic characteristics of a sinusoidal current powered arc. The research also included the modification of the Ayrton formula approximating static voltage-current characteristics by taking into consideration arc column length random disturbances as well as the development of an arc macro-model and simulations of processes in a simple circuit using MATLAB-Simulink software. The research demonstrated the efficiency of the three measurement method for determining the Pentegov model parameters in conditions arc column length disturbances.

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No. 5/2014

F. NASCIMENTO, L. QUINTINO - Developments in Friction Stir based technologies
Solid state techniques have been widespread and have the potential to be introduced in several industries solving problems that are not possible to resolve through the more common technologies. Friction Stir Welding is a welding technique based on friction mechanisms that has been studied since its discovery on 1991. This technique can weld aluminium and copper alloys and is of particular interest for the energy sector. Friction stir technology is widely used for welding aluminium through its potential reaches other areas. The present paper covers examples of applications of friction stir welding, surfacing and channelling, with potential for industrial implementation. The present paper depicts one example application in the replacement of copper by aluminium in electric power transformers which is of particular interest due to the savings that can be reached. A feasibility study has been carried out in which it is demonstrated that this process can effectively weld thin aluminium and copper plates producing very good results in the material mechanical and electrical properties. It was also confirmed that this process can effectively weld aluminium to copper however some restrictions must be made to guarantee a sound weld. Surfacing techniques are of particular interest because they can improve the mechanical properties of a certain material making it more robust to the environmental conditions. Developments in friction stir processing and friction surfacing are shown and result in improvement of the mechanical properties compared to the base material. It was concluded that both these processes can be used as surfacing techniques and usually the processed area presents better mechanical, wear and corrosion properties than the substrate. Friction Stir Channelling is a novel technique that can have a widespread application in the mould industry as it is a suitable technique for the production of internal conformal channels. An example focusing the production of two prototypes for the mould industry with the objective of rapidly homogenizing the surrounding temperature is presented in this paper.

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E. MEISS - Adhesive Bonding - Advantages and Limitations
Adhesive bonding is becoming increasingly important among industrially applied joining techniques. Growing demands for all kinds of products necessitate the development of new materials and material combinations. The ability of adhesives to join very different materials creates new application opportunities. In addition, the original properties of materials are usually maintained as, if compared with welding or brazing, adhesive bonding is a process poor in heat. The use of adhesive bonding makes it possible to eliminate other weaknesses accompanying, for instance riveting or screwing. In addition, this method enables the integration of real joint properties (sealing, vibration damping or anticorrosive protection) with a structural element. However, according to ISO 9000 adhesive bonding is a special process, which means that the quality of an adhesive bonded connection cannot be 100% verified by NDT methods. This fact entails the necessity of maintaining an appropriate quality management system in order to obtain and ensure high production quality.

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S. KEITEL, J. NEUBERT - Laser Welding - New Applications in Welding of Pipelines and Rail Vehicles
Laser welding and its combination with arc welding processes (laser-GMAW hybrid process) are obtaining an increasing importance for industrial applications. This paper gives an overview about the latest results of the development to qualify the laser welding process for tube welding, pipeline girth welding and welding of rail vehicles. Laser technologies are now available for tube production as well as for pipeline welding. There are technical solutions for production of longitudinal and helical welded tubes. Laser technologies are also applicable for pipeline welding in preproduction and under field conditions. Different procedures have been developed depending on tube diameters and wall thicknesses. The article contains examples of applications in gas and oil transport as well as in water pipeline transport. Laser welding of rail vehicles includes technologies for bogies and car bodies. Dependent on the application laser welding was used as a single process or in combination with GMAW. In the case of laser welding in the production of rail vehicles a close tie with the construction is necessary. The examples used demonstrate that laser welding is a safe technology used in highly sophisticated applications.

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J. GRKA, S. STANO - Properties and Structure of Laser Beam Welded Joints of S700MC Thermomechanically Treated Steel
The article presents the structure and properties of joints welded using a laser beam without a filler metal, made of 10 mm thick thermomechanically treated high yield point S700MC steel. The related non-destructive tests have classified the joints described above as representing the quality level B in accordance with standard 13919-1. The destructive tests have revealed the joint characterised by the tensile strength approximately 5% higher than that of the parent metal. Laser welding without the filler metal increases the content of chemical elements responsible for steel hardening (Ti, Nb), which leads to a weld toughness decrease below the acceptable value of 27 J/cm2.

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J. ADAMIEC, M. WICEK - Technology for Laser Welding of Ribbed Pipes Made of Inconel 625 Nickel Alloy
The increasing demand for electric energy in Europe requires continuous search for new energy sources as well as structural and technological solutions. Maintaining the present level of electric energy production requires the modernisation of previously used objects and the construction of new units for supercritical and ultrasupercritical parameters. The increase in thermal efficiency with the simultaneous energy cost reduction is possible due to ribbed pipes used in heat exchangers. The article presents ribbed pipe manufacturing technologies with special attention paid to an innovative laser welding technology developed at Energoinstal S.A. The use of high-power disc lasers enables welding ribbed pipes made of nickel alloys such as, for instance, Inconel 625. Due to their heat resistance and high-temperature creep resistance laser welded ribbed pipes made of the Inconel 625 alloy are elements of heat exchanger characterised by high usability potential. The article presents the results of technological tests involving laser welding of ribbed pipes made of the Inconel 625 alloy conducted at Energoinstal S.A. It was ascertained that the technology developed meets related requirements and can be qualified according to PN EN 15614-11.

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D. RUTKOWSKI, A. AMBROZIAK - Effect of laser strengthening on the mechanical properties of car body steels presently used in automotive industry
The article describes advanced very high-strength steels having the DP-type ferritic-martensitic structure, steels having the TRIP-type ferritic-bainitic structure with retained austenite and hot stamping steels. The research was focused on the selective DY044 laser strengthening of DP600, TRIP700 and 22MnB5 steels. The tests involved the determination of strengthening curves for the parent metal and for the weld as well as the determination of mechanical properties for DP600, TRIP700 and 22MnB5 steels strengthened by laser beam penetration, depending on the penetration depth. The research also involved the preparation and verification of parent metal and weld numerical models.

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A. IVARSON - Joining of Advanced High Strength Steels
This paper describes joining of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS). Over the past 2 to 3 decades the usage of AHSS has increased constantly, and will continue. In order to succeed with the overall design it is of importance to know how to design AHSS from e.g. fatigue, bending and welding point of view. As presented in this paper, AHSS has to be treated differently than mild steel regarding welding.

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L. KARLSSON, L-E. SVENSSON, K. HURTIG - Influence of dilution on properties of high strength steel weld metals
Chemical compositions of high strength steels and welding consumables differ significantly and dilution can therefore affect weld metal properties. Effects of dilution were studied by welding steels with yield strengths of 777 MPa and 1193 MPa using several arc welding methods with the addition of welding filler materials with a strength >800 MPa. Butt welds were produced in 12 mm plates and weld metal cooling rates were documented. High quality welds were produced efficiently with all welding methods and dilution varied between 3% for manual metal arc welding to 73% for laser-hybrid welding. Weld metals were martensitic/bainitic with proportions of microstructural constituents depending on alloying content and cooling rate. Overmatching weld metal strength was achieved for all welds in Weldox 700, and strengths >1000 MPa were recorded for Weldox 1100. Fracture in transverse tensile testing was for both steels located in the base material or HAZ. Low dilution, rapid cooling and single pass welding contributed to higher strength. Impact toughness decreased with increasing strength and increasing dilution. In conclusion, many welding methods can be used successfully for welding of high strength steels but effects of dilution and cooling rate should be considered when optimising properties.

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B. RUTZINGER - Influence of the welding process to the dilution rate of weld overlays on unalloyed steel using the weld consumable ERNiCrMo-3 (Alloy 625)
Nickel based alloys are used in different applications of the industries like power generation or the petro chemical industry. Out of the variety of these protection methodologies, weld overlay with ERNiCrMo-3 (Alloy 625) has proven to be the most widely accepted. This paper describes weld overlays of ERNiCrMo-3 (Alloy 625) with the welding methods GMAW Pulse, CMT, Tandem, CMT Twin, TIG cold wire, TIG hot wire and Laser Hybrid. The investigation of these probes includes the Fe dilution of the base material, the distribution of the Fe concentration through the weld overlay, and further on the welding speed and weld deposition rate.

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P. BERNASOVSKY - Examples of pipe failures in Slovak transmission gas pipelines
The paper deals with some case studies in Slovak high pressure gas pipelines. All cases were caused by an interaction effect of the weld anomalies excessive misalignment, poor workmanship or cold strain hardening, of the metallurgical aspects in pipe production liquid Cu embrittlement, irregular microstructure and by an additional bend loading earthquake, sudden pipe settlement and landslide or site bending.

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J. PILARCZYK, M. St. WGLOWSKI - Electron Beam Use in Welding and Allied Technologies
The article discusses the use of an electron beam in welding engineering, presents examples of electron beam utilisation in industry taking into consideration welding, fast prototyping and surface texturisation, provides information on techniques which can be used during welding as well as indicates practical application areas and advantages of the technology.

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O. SHEREPENKO, S. JUTTNER, V. ZHUK - Resistance spot welding of ultra-high strength steels with production-related process influences
Ultra-high and advanced high strength steels find their application in the production of vehicles, for the manufacturing of car body components, especially of those that are crash safety relevant. Production related influences may affect the process stability and cause the loss of quality that can be particularly critical for spot welds with high quality requirements. Despite the high accuracy of the manufactured components, process related variations of geometry may cause gaps between the welding partners. For welding, these gaps must be bridged prior to turning on the welding current. During the welding process of such elements with gap, the preload results in specific thermal and mechanical loading of the joint that can cause imperfections in the welded joint, e.g. cracks. This article gives a review on hot stamping process as well as on previous investigations in RSW of AHSS and UHSS with production related gaps. The present study shows the influence of production related gaps on process stability, and changes in microstructure and geometry of spot welds with gaps. Based on experimental investigation, an effect of welding time, coating and production related gaps on the quality and mechanical performance of RS-welded joints is discussed.

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B. E. PATON, L. M. LOBANOV, V. V. LYSAK, V. V. KNYSZ,
V. I. PAVLOVSKIJ, V.P. PRILUCKIJ, A. N. TIMOSZENKO,
P. V. GONCZAROV, Guan CYAO - Strain-free Welding of VT-20 (BT-20) Stringer Panels
The paper presents results of a complex of investigations on the development of technology of welding of stringer panels of titanium alloy using a slot weld, providing minimum residual stresses and strains and high values of their service life at cyclic loads. Welding of T-joints was performed by slot welds on full-scale specimens using three method of welding: electron beam, automatic non-consumable electrode argon arc welding along the layer of' activating flux and automatic non-consumable electrode argon arc welding with immersed arc. To eliminate the residual welding stresses and strains the preliminary elastic deforming of elements being welded was applied. Testing of all the types of specimens for their fatigue at longitudinal cyclic tension was carried out. The effect of heat-treatment, peening mechanical treatment and repair-welding technologies on their fatigue life was also determined. On the basis of results of investigations of full-scale specimens the batches of stringer panels of 1200 mm length were manufactured and tested. It was found that making of slot welds by argon arc non-consumable electrode welding along the activating flux using preliminary elastic deforming and high-frequency mechanical peening provides the higher characteristics of fatigue life of welded stringer panels of high-strength titanium alloy VT-20 as compared with electron beam welding and argon arc non-consumable electrode welding with immersed arc. The developed technology can serve the basis for industrial manufacture of welded stringer panels of high-strength titanium alloys.

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W. KUZNIECOW, K. SZAPOWALOW - Effect of Nano-oxides on the Structure and Properties of Low-alloy Steel Weld Metal
The article presents the effect of nano-oxides on the distribution of non-metallic inclusions as well as on the weld metal structure during welding of low-alloy steels. It has been ascertained that providing the weld pool with a 0.5% vol. of aluminium and titanium nano-oxides leads to the formation of acicular ferrite structure characterised by high mechanical properties.

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M. BIELOEV - Design, Production and Assembly of Large-Sized Structural Elements of Large Diameter Reservoir Roofs
The innovative method of constructing large-sized roofs (41 m in diameter) of oil reservoirs. The sizes of the individual sections of the umbrella-type roof structure were reduced by dividing them into two parts. As a result it was possible to increase the scope of shop production and facilitate transport and assembly, thus reducing total costs. Figures present joints made using shielded metal arc welding and self-shielded tubular-cored arc welding.

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Z. MIRSKI, K. BANYŚ, Z. FAEK, T. PIWOWARCZYK - FEM-aided Design of Welded Pressure Vessels According to ASME BPVC Regulations
The article presents the historical background and a brief introduction to the American ASME BPVC regulations concerned with welded boilers, pressure vessels and nuclear facilities. The article presents a methodology for the design of two-shell tube welded pressure vessel (autoclave) based on ASME Sec. VIII Div. 1 regulations. Due to the lack of a computational method (calculation based on formulas) for the complete pressure vessel according to ASME Sec. VIII, Div. 1, related calculations were performed using a computational method according to ASME Sec. VIII, Div. 2 Part 5. The results of the calculations are presented in the form of tables, graphs and numerically generated visualisation.

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A. KISZKA, T. PFEIFER - Effect of EN Ratio in Welding Current Waveform on the Properties of MIG/MAG Welded Joints Made of Various Structural Materials
The article presents the use of VP current for welding thin elements of various structural materials, describes the course of tests and discusses the test results related to the determination of the effect of EN ratio in the current and arc voltage waveforms on the weld geometry, penetration depth and welded joint quality.

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T. CHMIELEWSKI, D. GOLASKI - The Application of Kinetic Friction Energy for Ceramics Metallisation
The paper presents the problem of ceramics metallisation using the friction method based on the mechanism of joint formation, where the energy of kinetic friction is directly transformed into heat and supplied in specified amounts directly to the joint formed between the layer and the substrate. The paper also presents friction-utilising ceramic metallisation process developed by the authors as well as shows the results of microstructural examination of metallised layers obtained.

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T. PFEIFER, J. RYKAA - Welding EN AW 7075 Aluminium Alloy Sheets Low-energy Versus Pulsed Current
The article presents test results related to welding thin EN AW 7075 aluminium alloy sheets and the course of technological tests aimed at determining the usability of the CMT and MIG-Pulse methods for welding 2.0 mm EN AW 70775 alloy butt joints. The article also discusses the basic difficulties encountered while welding the 7xxx series alloy and presents the specific character of the welding method employing low arc energy and using pulsed current. The article presents the selected results of strength-related and macroscopic metallographic tests of the welded joints along with their detailed analysis. The study also describes the circle path hot crack resistance test; the joints obtained in the test were subjected to detailed microscopic metallographic examination and microanalysis of chemical composition. It should be emphasised that the CMT method enables the obtainment of good quality and aesthetics of welded joints made of the aluminium alloy generally recognised as poorly weldable.

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K. PACIKIEWICZ, A. ZIEWIEC, P. ZBROJA, P. KAJDA, E. TASAK - Microstructure and Properties of Dissimilar Welded Joints Made of Steels used in the Power Industry
The article presents the microstructure and properties of dissimilar welded joints of pipes made of the 304HCu (X10CrNiCuNb18-9-3) and P92 (X10CrWMoVNb9-2) steels in the as welded state and after PWHT. The test-related TIG welding was carried out using two filler metals in the form of the Thermanit 304HCu and the EPRI P87 filler metal wires. The tests revealed the significant influence of heat treatment time extension on the decrease in the hardness of the martensitic steel and its HAZ as well as an on the increase in the hardness of the austenitic steel, its HAZ and of the weld made using the Thermanit 304HCu filler metal. The microscopic observations revealed the presence of a carburised zone on the fusion line between the P92 steel and the weld made using the Thermanit 304HCu filler metal wire.

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A. PIETRAS, A. WGLOWSKA, B. RAMS, Sz. KOWIESKI, D. MIARA,
M. St. WGLOWSKI - Friction Stir Welding of Copper Plates
The objective of the work was to develop a technology for the friction stir welding (FSW) of copper elements of thicknesses exceeding 15 mm and possible to use in the production of current conductor rails. The length of the conductor rail element joining line amounts to approximately 100 mm. The first stage involved FSP tests, i.e. tests of copper plasticisation, using the FSW method and creating the compact weld structure on plates having thicknesses between 8 and 20 mm. The next stage consisted in friction stir welding of copper elements. The investigation involved testing copper plasticisation conditions while using the FSW process, the development of a welding tool as well as the development of conditions for proper welding of sheets/plates having thicknesses of up to 20 mm. It was observed that properly formed welds require the use of a relatively low tool rotation rate and good cooling of element-fixing tooling.

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J. MATUSIAK, P. SZAPA, J. WYCIŚLIK, W. MARCZAK - Experimental Tests on the Effect of Gas-shielded Arc Welding Technological Conditions on Sound Level
During various welding processes workers are exposed to activities connected with audible and ultrasonic noise. In spite of the continuous development and improvement of production means, robotisation of welding works and the development of measures protecting workers against noise, the exposure to noise continues to be one of the major issues in welding engineering. The article presents experimental tests focused on the effect of gas-shielded metal arc welding technological conditions on the level of sounds generated during welding processes. The study discusses the results of tests performed for 7 selected gas-shielded arc welding methods, i.e. MAG, MAG Pulse, CMT (Cold Metal Transfer), ColdArc, RapidArc, MAG Double Pulse and AC Pulse. The test-related analysis was concerned with the correlations between welding material-technological conditions and the acoustic pressure level of sound A as well as the acoustic pressure level in the 1/3 octave bands of audible and ultrasonic noise spectrum.

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T. PIWOWARCZYK, A. MAACHOWSKA, M. WINNICKI - Numerical Modelling and Application Potential of the Cold Spray Method
The article presents the theoretical and practical aspects of the Cold Spray method numerical modelling,indicates the main numerical analysis research areas(particle speed modelling and particle deformation modelling),determines the major parameters considered during simulation, demonstrates analysis-based correlations as well as presents recommended software, modelling examples and their major problems,modelling result verification methods and their practical usability. The article also evaluates the usability of numerical analyses by demonstrating the application potential of Cold Spray method.

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M. NOWAK, J. BUCHOWSKI, D. WIŚNIEWSKI - Off-line Programming of Welding Robots Process and Economic Advantages
The article presents the advantages of the off-line programming of robotic welding stations using the example of DTPS (Desk Top Programming and Simulation System) software by PANASONIC.

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D. FYDRYCH, G. ROGALSKI, J. ABANOWSKI - Problems of Underwater Welding of Higher-Strength Low Alloy Steels
The article characterizes the presently used techniques of underwater welding and the problems connected with obtaining the required properties of joints. The text also presents test results related to the weldability of higher-strength steels in underwater conditions and indicates the main R&D trends in welding technologies aimed at reducing the effect of inconvenient underwater welding conditions and improving the quality of joints made under water.

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T. CHMIELEWSKI, K. KUDA, M. WGLOWSKI - Analysis of the Effect of Arc Welding Characteristics in Modern MAG Welding Variants on Welding Properties and Weld Geometry
The article presents experimental tests aimed to compare welding conditions and technological properties of butt joint welding using low-energy gas-shielded metal arc welding variants such as MAG Standard, MAG Puls, TwinPuls, SpeedPuls, SpeedUp, SpeedArc, SpeedRoot and SpeedCold. The article also presents a comparison of welding efficiency of these processes and the effect of power source dynamic characteristics on the geometry and macrostructure of welds.

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D. MAJEWSKI, A. WINIOWSKI - Brazing Filler Metals of Limited-Noxiousness
The recent results of technological process and composition-related research performed at Instytut Spawalnictwa in Gliwice and dedicated to brazing filler metals and fluxes of limited noxiousness. The brazing properties of newly-developed low-melting cadmium-free silver filler metals in the form of flux-coated rods and low-fluoride fluxes. The quality and mechanical properties of joints brazed using the newly developed filler metals.

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No. 4/2014

A. KISZKA, T. PFEIFER - Use of anti-spatter substances in welding processes
The article presents the course and results of tests involving the use of anti-spatter substances. The study determined the effect of the anti-spatter substance applied on the surface of workpieces on the quality and properties of welded joints as well as the effect of the anti-spatter substance applied on the welding torch elements on the active life of nozzles and contact tubes used in MIG/MAG welding and plasma cutting processes.

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J. CZUCHRYJ, P. IREK - Dye penetrant method of the assessment of the pores size in welded joints made of aluminium and its alloys
The work included the penetrant inspection carried out on AlMg5 aluminium alloy provided with artificial discontinuities, i.e. pores (drilled openings). The tests involved the measurements of indication sizes depending on the time of development and various diameters and depths of openings. The dependences determined enable estimating the depth of pores in welded products made of aluminium and its alloys. The information obtained should enable the decision-making concerning the acceptance of a product for operation or the necessity of repairing it. The tests also included the determination of optimum indication development time for aluminium and its alloys.

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M. St. WGLOWSKI, J. DWORAK, S. BACHA - Electron beam welding - equipment and accessories
Electron beam welding has been known and used for a long time, yet the recent years have seen increasing advancements in equipment fully utilising this welding method potential. Electron beam welding machines can be both universal and highly specialised, which can translate to significant operating and, first of all, welding costs reduction. Modern electron beam welding devices are provided with control systems and safety features which maximise operators anti-radiation protection and enable carrying out technological processes in vacuum conditions.

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R. KACZMAREK, R. KRAWCZYK - Analysis of dimensions of test joints
in the process of technology qualification according to PN-EN ISO 15614-1 in the aspect of ultrasonic testing according to PN-EN ISO 17640
Quality assurance systems in welding engineering demand that the manufacturers of welded structures and welding equipment should apply qualified welding technologies. The most commonly used mode of welding technology qualification is testing a given welding technology by making test joints and carrying out their examination. This article presents the analysis of test joint dimensions recommended in PN-EN ISO 15614-1 in relation to the possibility of testing the quality of such joints using ultrasonic testing according to recommendations of currently valid related standards. The article contains a proposal how to determine the width of a test joint on the basis of the nomogram developed. The target readers of the article include welding engineers and technologists, other welding coordination personnel involved in the preparation of test joints as well as NDT personnel, due to the extensive analysis concerning the selection of testing methods and ultrasonic examination of test joints.

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R. KRAWCZYK - Welding parameter ranges in relation to metal transfer method in welding arc
The study is concerned with MAG welding. The issues presented are directly related to the transfer of metal in the welding arc depending on power applied. The main objective of the study was to present the ranges of welding parameters in relation to the mode of metal transfer in the welding arc. The subject of the study was inspired by the introduction of new standard PN-EN ISO 9606-1 concerning the qualification of welders. This standard features the mode of metal transfer in the welding arc as a new welder qualification variable. As a result, these issues have acquired new significance in terms of this process.

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W. ZEMAN, M. RESTECKA - Welding industry against economic fluctuations of 2006-2012
The article aims to determine the scale of applying welding technologies, the role of welding engineering in production and economy and the impact of economic fluctuations on the dynamics of sales in industries applying welding techniques and on the demand for welding equipment and consumables.

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No. 3/2014

M. St. WGLOWSKI, J. DWORAK, S. BACHA - Electron beam welding and its characteristics
The article presents the characteristics of electron beam welding and describes phenomena taking place during the interaction between an electron and an atom of a material being bombarded. The study also presents the basic electron beam welding parameters and structural material weldability characteristics as well as enumerates the advantages of the technology and indicates its possible areas of application.

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E. TURYK, W. GROBOSZ - Beginnings of submerged arc welding
On the basis of available publications and patent descriptions it was possible to put together facts related to the beginnings of submerged arc welding in Poland and worldwide. The overview of reference publications confirms the information according to which the authorship of welding under a flux layer providing a metallurgical shield for the welding zone should be ascribed to D.A. Dulczewskij, whose patent was published in 1929. The article presents the issues of the first research, structural and implementation works connected with submerged arc welding and surfacing carried out at Instytut Spawalnictwa in early 1950s.

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W. OBORSKI, H. PASEK-SIUREK - Use of modern analytical methods in designing induction heating devices
The article presents induction heating and its application range, discusses factors significantly affecting the course of an induction heating process and characteristic phenomena such as electromagnetic induction, skin effect and proximity, enumerates the advantages and downsides of modern numerical and experimental methods as well as characterises (giving emphasis to FEM) and compares numerical methods used during designing induction heating systems and devices. The article also contains an overview related to FEM-based commercial software applications used for analysing issues connected with the simultaneous presence of electromagnetic and thermal phenomena.

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T. KIK - Numerical analysis of MIG welding of butt joints in aluminium alloy
Analyses based on FEM calculations have significantly changed the possibilities of determining welding strains and stresses at early stages of product design and welding technology development. Such an approach to design enables obtaining significant savings in production preparation and post-weld deformation corrections and is also important for utility properties of welded joints obtained. As a result, it is possible to make changes to a simulated process before introducing them into real production as well as to test various variants of a given solution. Numerical simulations require the combination of problems of thermal, mechanical and metallurgical analysis. The study presented involved the SYSWELD software-based analysis of MIG welded butt joints made of 5251 aluminium alloy sheets. The analysis of strains and the distribution of stresses were carried out for several different cases of fixing elements and for different times of releasing elements welded.

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A. SAWICKI, M. HALTOF - Damping factor function in AC electric arc models. Part 4: Arc model selection criteria and determination of time constant in low current arc
Causes of problems in strict classification of arcs into two categories: low and high current have been described. Assumption has been taken that processes in column can be approximated with one of two models: Mayr or Cassie. A new criterion of arc classification has been proposed, based on minimal deviation of harmonic relation of real voltage on arc column comparing to theoretically estimated data. Using MATLAB-Simulink program, errors in determining time constant value have been analyzed in Mayr model of arc described with different mathematical models with and without random noise.

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No. 2/2014

B.E. PATON - Research and developments of the E.O. Paton Electric Welding Institute for nowadays power engineering
Developments of the E.O. Paton Electric Welding Institute for power engineering have been presented, in particular, technologies for the welding of large-size turbine rotors, electron beam welding of thick billets of high-strength steels, technologies of submerged-arc welding and flash-butt welding with a pulsating flashing of pipes for main large-diameter gas pipelines, technology and equipment for manufacture of energy-saving heat-exchanging devices. Outlined are developments directed to increase the corrosion resistance of fuel elements and the safe service of NPP due to the application of high-temperature wear-resistant mechanized surfacing of pipeline stop valves with corrosion-resistant alloys. Practical recommendations for the repair of main pipelines without interruption of their operation are given. The investigations were carried out showing the possibility of the application of acoustic emission for monitoring welded structures operating at high temperatures. A method for the prevention of the catastrophic leakage of oil from damaged pipes of wells of oil-production platforms has been developed.

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M. BANASIK - Laser cutting. Progress in equipment
The article presents the current development and technical possibilities of modern laser cutters, as well as describes todays systems incorporating CO2 molecular lasers, disc lasers and fibre lasers. The study also analyses the basic equipment and technological aspects related to cutting by means of laser cutters.

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A. PIETRAS, M. St. WGLOWSKI - Imperfections in FSW joints and NDT methods of their detection
The article presents the classification of imperfections present in joints welded using the FSW method. The division of imperfections is based on standards PN-EN ISO 25239:2013 and AWS D17.3. The article also provides a more extensive and precise division of welding imperfections characteristic of the FSW process along with reasons for their formation. The text also presents the requirements of the standards in relation to the boundary values of imperfections depending on imperfection types. Furthermore, the article demonstrates the advantages, disadvantages and application of given non-destructive tests with reference to the quality control of FSW joints.

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T. PFEIFER - Application of variable polarity for MIG welding of aluminium alloys
The article presents the application of an innovative MIG welding technology using variable polarity for the welding of thin aluminium alloy elements and demonstrates the results of tests related to the impact of the electrode negative (EN) ratio on weld geometry and penetration depth as well as on the quality and structure of welded joints.

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A. SAWICKI - Influence of quasi-static gas pressure changes on electric arc modelling in electrotechnological devices
The article presents exemplary applications of devices with electric arc in gases of varying pressure used in industry practice and variants of the approximation of static arc characteristics. The article also contains an analysis of the influence of pressure changes on an arc damping factor function and presents mathematical arc models with a quasi-statically variable pressure parameter. The tests also involved simulations of processes in a simple circuit with an arc. The article also contains the results of calculations in the form of the evolution of dynamic voltage-current arc characteristics influenced by pressure changes.

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R. SCHFER, P. PASQUALE - The Electromagnetic Pulse Technology (EMPT): forming, welding, crimping and cutting
The electromagnetic pulse technology (EMPT) provides non-contact processes for joining, welding, forming and cutting of metals. EMPT processes can be used for joining, welding, forming and cutting of metals with particular success with those with high electric conductivity such as aluminum, copper and steel tubes. The procedure is so fast that it can produce solid-phase welds with a microstructure very similar to that of explosive welding. This article describes the fundamentals of the EMPT process, suitable machines and the economics of the process. Industrial applications of the technique are shown.

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No. 1/2014

M. BANASIK, S. STANO, M. URBACZYK - Hybrid laser + electric arc welding. Development and possibilities (Part I)
The article briefly presents the history of hybrid laser welding (laser + arc), describes the advantages of the latest laser sources used in welding engineering, presents technological heads for hybrid laser arc welding (HLAW) and demonstrates the advantages of hybrid welding if compared with laser welding and arc welding used separately.

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M. St. WGLOWSKI, T. PFEIFER - Influence of cutting technology on the quality of unalloyed steel surface
The article presents requirements concerning quality after cutting in accordance with the requirements of PN-EN 1090-1+A1:2012P and PN-EN ISO 9013:2008 standards as well as the results of surface tests after cutting with a laser beam, plasma, oxygen and water stream. The test results reveal the significant influence of the cutting technology on surface quality. The research related quality tests involved the measurements of perpendicularity, hardness, profile height and metallographic examination. The lowest hardness was achieved by water cutting, whereas the highest was obtained by plasma cutting under the water surface. The lowest porosity was achieved by means of plasma cutting over the water surface, whereas the highest by laser beam cutting. The lowest perpendicularity tolerance was obtained by plasma cutting under the water surface (1.6 m/min), whilst the highest was achieved by laser beam cutting and HD plasma.

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S. BACHA, M. ZEMAN - Initial assessment of weldability of modern PB2 steel for power engineering
The article contains information concerning a new generation steel designated as PB2 (X13CrMoCoVNbNB9-2-1) intended for the operation in power boilers of fresh steam supercritical parameters. The article presents the results of tests on the effect of welding thermal cycles on the structure, toughness and hardness of the simulated HAZ of power engineering PB2 steel as well as the susceptibility of this steel to hot cracking. The tests involved the use of a simulator of thermal-strain cycles. The publication also contains the results of the tests of similar butt joints in PB2 steel pipes subjected to the post-weld heat treatment.

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J. PIKUA, T. PFEIFER, J. MENDAKIEWICZ - Influence of the shielding gas on the properties of VP-GMA braze-welded joints in zinc coated steel sheets
The article presents the results of research on overlay brazing and weldbrazing of hot-dip galvanized sheets carried out in order to determine the influence of shielding gas composition and electrode-negative (EN) ratio on the process and properties of overlay brazes and weldbrazed joints. The parameters analysed included joint geometry, wettability, zinc coating oxidation, spatter and porosity.

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P. IREK - Laser surface alloying of AlSi7Cu4MgMn aluminium alloy with silicon carbide
The article presents the results of tests on the laser surface alloying of AlSi7Cu4MgMn aluminium alloy using silicon carbide. The objective of the tests was to establish the influence of laser beam power and travel rate, ceramic powder feeding rate and presence of activating flux on the quality of seams surface alloyed with an HPDDL laser using SiC particles as well as to determine the optimum technological process conditions. The assessment of the quality of surface alloyed seams was carried out using macro and microscopic examination verifying the proper generation of a composite layer on the surface and the percentage fraction of SiC particles in the root run. The article also presents the results of microhardness measurements in the cross-sections of laser-processed layers.

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