ISSN 2300-1674

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List of reviewers of scientific papers printed in 2015

No. 6/2015

E. TURYK, W. GROBOSZ, T. KUZIO, ST. DUDEK, I.A. RIABCEW – Welding Imperfections in T-joints of Thin-walled Elements Made Using Mechanised TIG welding with Filler Metal
The article presents welding imperfections in TIG-welded T-joints of thin-walled elements made using filler metal wire. The study discusses both typical, i.e. specified in PN-EN ISO 6520-1:2009 and untypical imperfections, i.e. not classified in the standard mentioned above.

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K. MADEJ, S. ŚWIDERGO, P. JAKUBIEC – Analysis of Cracks in Welded Joints of Pipes with Eyes made of S890QL1 Steel
The analysis presented in the article was concerned with cracks in MAG (135) robotic welded joints of pipes with eyes made of S890QL1 steel and constituting components of the latticework of self-propelled cranes. The text also presents results of tests concerning chemical composition as well as mechanical and metallographic properties of base materials and welded joints. The article contains an assessment of radial and longitudinal cracks of joints based on fractographic tests of cracks and impact-test specimens. The text also discusses the effect of welding process thermal conditions on joint properties. Test results were referred to the theory of hydrogen-induced cracking (mechanism) according to Professor E. Tasak.

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J. NIAGAJ – Requirements of AFCEN and ASME Codes in Processing and Welding of Metal Parts of Nuclear Reactor Containment
The article presents the contents and requirements of the AFCEN RCC-CW and ASME Section III codes as well as associated standard specifications concerning parent materials, welding consumables and manufacturing processes, including welding and heat treatment, used in the production of steel parts of nuclear reactor containments.

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R.A.K. BENNEDBAEK, C.V. NIELSEN, W. ZHANG – Latest Developments in Simulation and Optimization of Resistance Welding Processes
The paper summarizes the latest developments in numerical simulation and optimization of resistance welding as well as new developments in 3D simulation. Resistance welding simulation can be applied for the prediction of weld nugget sizes in various material combinations, and for the optimization and planning of welding process parameters. Weld quality can be modelled in terms of microstructural phase changes, resulting hardness distribution and strength under specified loading conditions. New developments for 3D simulation of complex joints allow for modelling strength testing and special effects such as shunting. Furthermore, projection welding often needs 3D simulation. 3D simulation of a new, lightweight, sandwich material is presented in the paper.

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M. SLOVEK, T. KIK – Use of Welding Process Numerical Analyses as Technical Support in Industry. Part 3: Industrial Examples Transport Industry
At the present stage of industrial development, numerical analyses are nothing new. In developed countries, numerical analyses are present almost in every stage when designing a new part or structure or when developing repair and modernising technologies. Numerical analyses enable simulating welding processes without compromising the high compatibility of simulation results with those obtained in reality. Numerical simulations are very useful tools supporting production preparation processes and assuring the highest quality of products. However, in order to satisfy the needs of various industries, it is necessary to develop computational methods, ready-to-use modules or software applications ensuring an effective and comfortable manner of performing calculations. The article is the third part of a cycle concerned with the possibility of applying numerical techniques as tools supporting the development of technologies and structures using computer simulations of welding and heat treatment processes. Part 3 is focused on examples of the use of numerical analyses in the transport industry.

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M. SAPERSKI – Technology of Welding Large-sized Rings of Offshore Structures
The article presents practically proven technology for making single large-sized rings used in offshore structures and made of high strength steel rectangular segments (100 mm 120 mm). The study also presents formal and documentation-related requirements as well as issues concerning quality assurance.

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A. SAWICKI, M. HALTOF – Selected Methods Used in Experimental Determination of Near-Electrode Voltage Drops of Electric Arcs. Part 1: Direct Methods Used in Determination of Near-electrode Voltage Drops
The article discusses the primary difficulties encountered when experimentally determining near-electrode voltage drops of high pressure electric arcs, presents the classification of measurement methods and various variants of direct and indirect measurements (known from reference publications and developed by the authors of the article).

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No. 5/2015

T. PFEIFER, J. RYKAA – Braze Welding of Zinc-coated Steel Sheets Using Variable Polarity GMA Flux-cored Welding
The article presents the course and results of research aimed to determine the effect of the type of shielding gas on the shape of brazeweld, tensile strength and structure of braze welded joints made using Variable Polarity GMA, flux-cored consumable electrode and one of 3 types of shielding gas, i.e. Ar and Ar + 1% O2 and Ar + 18% CO2 mixtures. The study involved macro and microscopic examinations and tensile strength tests performed on overlay brazes and braze welded joints. The study-related tests have revealed that the use of mixtures containing active gases, especially CO2, increases the heat input of braze welding processes and provides greater wettability of sheets to be jointed. However, the use of the mixtures mentioned above also causes greater damage to sheet coatings in braze welding areas and in some cases can even lead to the partial melting of elements being joined, deteriorating the aesthetics of joints and reducing their tensile strength.

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E. TURYK, W. GROBOSZ, T. KUZIO, S. DUDEK, I.A. RIABCEW – Technological Conditions of Mechanised TIG Welding using Various Systems Adjusting Current and Electrode Wire Feeding Parameters
The study described in the article involved technological tests of mechanised TIG welding with an electrode wire fed at a possibly low angle in relation to a welding arc and based on various wire feeding control systems, e.g. enabling the adjustment of wire feeding rate pulsation and synchronisation of wire feeding rate with current impulses. The article also presents differences in sets of technological parameters of welding performed using such control systems.

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M. OMOZIK – Differences in Structural Transformations of Supercooled Austenite Exemplified in Selected CCT-W Diagrams (for Welding Conditions) and CCT Diagrams for Heat Treatment Conditions
The article presents differences in the character of thermal cycle changes in welding conditions compared with the cycle of a traditional heat treatment, discusses the essence of austenite transformations in steels in welding conditions compared with heat treatment conditions, presents test results in the form of CTT-W diagrams (i.e. for welding conditions) for X10CrMoVNb9-1 (T/P91), X10CrWMoVNb9-2 (T/P92), X12CrCoWVNb12-2-2 (VM12-SHC), 7CrMoVTiB10-10 (P24), 10CrMo9-10 and S355JR grade structural steels and compares CTT-W diagrams with CCT diagrams for typical heat treatment conditions.

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T. KIK, M. SLOVEK, M. VANK – Use of Welding Process Numerical Analyses as Technical Support in Industry. Part 2: Methodology and Validation
Numerical analyses of production processes have proved useful and capable of obtaining significant savings. However, properly conducted simulations of technological processes require not only the appropriate adjustment of parameters, boundary conditions etc., but also need detailed input data in the form of databases of material properties. The input data mentioned above are decisive for the future conformity of results obtained in numerical simulations with results of actual welding or heat processing. This article, being the continuation of the cycle of information dedicated to numerical analyses of welding and heat treatment processes, presents possible variants of numerical analyses of these processes and exemplary stages of preparation of simulations as well as results of such simulations.

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O.K. MAKOWIECKAJA – Current Situation and Developmental Trends in Production and Welding Techniques in Russia
The article presents the primary indicators illustrating the current situation and developmental trends in the production of welding equipment and materials in Russia in 2010-2013. The study also contains the analysis of tendencies taking place on the welding technique market (importexport) in the Russian Federation.

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A. SAWICKI, M. HALTOF – Metrological Issues in Experimental Tests of Welding Machines. Part 2: Errors and Uncertainties in Measurements of Parameters of Selected Periodic Waveforms
The article justifies the necessity of taking into consideration measurement accuracies in experimental tests of welding machines and presents the effect of systematic errors of measurement channels on the errors related to the determination of root-mean-square current, root-mean-square voltage and average values of momentary power. The study also presents errors and uncertainties in measurements of active, passive and apparent power in supply systems of one-phase and three-phase welding machines. For the study-related purposes it was necessary to assume the symmetry of three-phase supply voltage and the linearity of elements in load branches. The article provides primary information about digital measurements of the frequency and the angle of the phase shift of periodic wavelengths indicating sources of systematic errors. The work also presents dependences enabling the experimental determination of filling factors of rectangular wavelengths of TIG welding machines as well as describes measurement errors in three cases of rectangular wave shapes. The computational determination of errors and uncertainties was exemplified using the results of tests concerned with welding source power efficiency.

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No. 4/2015

T. PFEIFER, B. CZWRNG – The Effect of Plasma Surfacing Parameters on the Geometry and Structure of Overlay Welds
The article presents the course and results of tests concerning plasma-powder surfacing of steels used in the power sector. The tests, involving the use of Inconel 625 alloy-based powder, aimed to determine the effect of process variables on overlay weld geometry, penetration depth and overlay weld-parent metal stirring degree. The article presents the results of metallographic examinations obtained by light microscopy, including the structure of overlay welds and Heat Affected Zone as well as the hardness distribution in overlay welds and Heat Affected Zone.

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A. LISIECKI, A. MAJOWSKI, T. GORZELIK, J. JAREK, P. GORZELA, A. KURC-LISIECKA – Controlling the Quality and Life of Briquetting Machine MMA Surfaced Working Elements in the Process of Steel Briquette Manufacturing
The article presents the results of a study dedicated to the selection of covered electrodes applied for the surfacing of briquetting machine working elements used in the production of briquettes made of fine-grained steel scrap. The analysis of operating conditions and wear mechanisms affecting surfaces of working elements enabled the preliminary selection of four types of covered electrodes used for the surfacing of wear-resistant surfaces. The tests involved structural and chemical composition analyses, microhardness measurements and the analysis of operational properties, particularly of metal-metal abrasive wear in relation to electrode weld deposits. The selection of electrodes, whose weld deposit provides the highest resistance to metal-metal abrasive wear were followed by operational tests of briquetting machine surfaced elements in real production conditions. The tests have revealed that the surfacing of the surfaces of briquetting machine work elements by means of EC 4119 covered electrodes extends the service life of these elements four times if compared with the life of original working elements made of tool steel intended for cold operation.

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M. SLOVEK, T. KIK – Use of Welding Process Numerical Analyses as Technical Support in Industry. Part 1: Introduction to Welding Process Numerical Simulations
Welding, as a modern and highly efficient technology, is presently applied in practically all industrial sectors. An increase in the number of welding applications entails higher requirements related to the quality of welded joints. Numerical analyses enable welding process simulations whose results are very close to reality. The results of such analyses include distributions of temperature fields, metallurgical phases, hardness, plastic strains and stresses. The analysis of these quantities makes it possible to relatively optimise welding technologies and to obtain information about the behaviour of welded structures during the entire production process. Numerical simulations constitute very useful tools supporting production preparation processes and enabling the obtainment of high quality products. Presently, the most complex numerical simulation software programmes make up the package offered by the ESI Group including SYSWELD, PAM ASSEMBLY and WELD PLANNER. All these programmes utilise FEM-based calculations. This article is the first part of a cycle concerning the possibility of utilising numerical techniques in supporting the design of technologies and structures using computer-aided simulations of welding processes and heat treatment.

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O.K. MAKOWIECKAJA – Present Situation and Developmental Trends in the Global Market of Major Structural Materials and Welding Technique
The article presents the primary indicators reflecting the state of the global market of the most important structural materials and of welding technique in 2011-2014. The assessments performed by analytical companies and major producers of welding machines and materials were used to forecast the development of this market in the years to come.

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R. KACZMAREK – Testing Echo Amplitude Changes in relation to an Ultrasonic Beam Angle of Incidence at a Flat-Bottomed Reflector
The articles presents issues related to ultrasonic testing of welded joints and includes results of tests dedicated to the detectability of flat discontinuities depending on their orientation in relation to the ultrasonic beam axis. In the tests, flat discontinuities were constituted by circular flat-bottomed reflectors of DGS-45 standard having a diameter DDSR=2?mm. The tests were performed using a Phased Array transducer and a defectoscope with a Phased Array imaging package enabling the determination of echo amplitude for various beam insertion angle values. As a result, it was possible to obtain the characteristics of a decibel echo drop depending on the beam angle of incidence on the flat-bottomed reflector in a range from the optimum to a disadvantageous value. The article includes a diagram distance amplification - beam angle of incidence on the reflector enabling the determination of an echo amplitude drop accompanying the changes of angles at which the beam strikes a discontinuity by 5, 10 and 15.

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A. SAWICKI, M. HALTOF – Metrological problems of experimental research welding devices. Part 1. Errors and uncertainties in measuring current, voltage and power with application of hallotron sensors
The article describes the methodology used in calculating errors and uncertainty of current, voltage and power measurement channels containing Hall-effect sensors and digital measurement devices. The deliberations involved LEM-manufactured current and voltage transducers whose nominal ranges enable testing electrotechnological devices intended for welding-related applications. The recommendations of the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) were used to present universal dependences enabling various measurement uncertainties, i.e. absolute, relative, standard, complex and extended. For some specific cases related to the selection LEM-manufactured transducers, voltmeters or measurement cards connected to a computer, relative measurement uncertainties budgets were created.

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No. 3/2015

M. RESTECKA – IT Systems in Aid ofWelding Processes
The organisation of work and proper control both of technical and economic process parameters increase productivity. Success is preconditioned by the possibility of quickly adapting a technological process to an ever-changing market situation. The article presents various IT programmes supporting the management, planning, designing and preparing of production, monitoring technological processes and analysing obtained data in an appropriate way.

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L. SZUBERT – ArcWeld Multi-Station System for Controlling Welding Parameters
Progressing automation and strong market competition dictate a rise in productivity without compromising, and sometimes even with increasing quality-related requirements. As aresult, in big industrial companies the control of production processes based on traditional inspection methods is significantly limited, expensive and impossible to perform on a continuous basis. Consequently, a quality control related to welded joints is randomised and based on destructive testing. Although such welded joint quality control enables obtaining very good results in terms of joint quality control, its cost, time and possibility of assessing only a selected set of specimens make the method impossible for performing complex assessments of ongoing production processes. This has led to a rising popularity of methods supporting the evaluation of joint quality control enabling a non-invasive assessment of each joint. To this end it has become necessary to apply systems making it possible to continuously control electric parameters characterising welding processes. For many years, Instytut Spawalnictwa has been carrying out tests and developing measurement equipment for monitoring welding processes. Such equipment and systems find applications in industrial companies, both for welding process control and assessment as well as for adjusting welding process parameters. One of such systems is amulti-station system for monitoring Arc Weld (electric arc welding) process parameters.

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A. PILARCZYK – Instytut Spawalnictwa Computer Welding Platform (ISCWP)
The article presents stages dedicated to creating, developing and implementing an integrated IT solution of Instytut Spawalnictwa, i.e. Computer Welding Platform (ISCWP). AComputer-Aided Welding Personnel Management System, being one of IWP modules, has introduced a new standard of information exchange in the system of personnel training and certification. The article also describes the remaining IWP modules, i.e. Welding Engineer Website and Knowledge Base. These modules enable collecting and sharing information related to the research potential of domestic and overseas research establishments as well as to innovative technological solutions developed in such establishments. All the modules make up a modern system of communication between innovators and users of welding technologies. Due to Internet-based solutions, Computer Welding Platform can be accessed at any time from any place in the world.

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J. CZUCHRYJ, S. SIKORA – Problems Related to the Organisation of aLaboratory for Non-Destructive Testing and Selected Destructive Tests
Increasing demands for NDT services trigger organising and opening laboratories specialising in such testing and provided with necessary equipment. This was the reason for the determination of testing means and costs necessary for performing NDT activities. Information collected and presented in this article should optimise the creation of a laboratory in terms of necessary equipment and investment costs.

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R. KACZMAREK, R. KRAWCZYK – Testing Echo Amplitude Changes Depending on an Ultrasonic Beam Angle of Incidence on an Infinite Reflector
The article presents test results related to the detectability of flat discontinuities depending on their orientation in relation to the axis of an ultrasonic wave beam. A flat discontinuity used in the tests was the skew surface of a DGS standard, being an infinite reflector for an ultrasonic wave. The tests were performed using a phased array transducer and a defectoscope with a Phased Array imaging package enabling the determination of echo amplitude for various beam insertion angle values. As a result, it was possible to obtain the characteristics of adecibel echo drop depending on a beam angle of incidence on a reflector in a range from the optimum to a disadvantageous value. The article also contains the analysis of the effect of a determined characteristic on the detectability of flat discontinuities in conventional ultrasonic tests as well as discusses manners making it possible to increase the detectability of flat discontinuities. First of all, the article is addressed at NDT personnel, particularly at persons dealing with ultrasonic tests of welded joints.

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M. GRUPP, T. WESTPHLIN, G. CHROBAK – Fibre Laser as an Energy-Saving Tool. Overview of Industrial Applications
Fibre lasers have established their position in a variety of industrial applications. The advantages of these lasers such as excellent beam quality, solid (compact) design and possibility of power adjustment within a wide range have supplanted conventional laser sources in a number of applications or made laser technologies applicable in some areas for the first time ever. Their electric efficiency (up to approximately 45%) make fibre lasers energy-saving tools, minimising outlays and costs related to power consumption and cooling. The article describes fibre laser technologies and overviews micro- and macro-processing applications using pulsed-mode lasers or lasers emitting a continuous single (basic mode) beam or a multi-mode beam.

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A. SAWICKI, M. HALTOF – Method for Determining the Parameters of the Pentegov Model Describing anElectric Arc with Hyperbolic-Linear Static Characteristic
The article presents reasons for nonlinear static voltage-current characteristics of an electric arc; the characteristics consist of an initial voltage drop followed by a voltage rise in the range of strong currents. The article suggests that overcoming difficulties in mathematical modelling of electric processes in circuits with arcs requires the use of Pentegov assumptions and the building of an arc model utilising a static hyperbolic-linear characteristic. The article also presents a method for the experimental determination of arc model parameters with sinusoidal excitation as well as describes a macromodel built using the MATLAB-Simulink programme. The correctness of analytical expressions specifying mathematical model parameters was verified through simulation. The study also involved testing the resistance of the proposed method to arc length random disturbances.

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No. 2/2015

J. PILARCZYK – 70 years of Instytut Spawalnictwa in Gliwice
Instytut Spawalnictwa was founded on 28 March 1945 in Katowice at the premises of the Silesian Technical Scientific Centre on Krasiskiego street (todays seat of Silesian University of Technology).

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A. SAWICKI, M. HALTOF – Spectral Method for Determining Parameters in the Mayr and Cassie Models of Electric Arc
The paper describes the effect of various external factors on the static and dynamic voltage-current characteristics of electrical arcs as well as presents the spectral method for determining parameters of the Mayr and Cassie mathematical models. This method was also used for the coarse classification of arcs. The effect of column length disturbances on the uncertainty of arc model parameter determination was investigated using MATLAB-Simulink program.

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O. K. MAKOWIECKAJA – Industrial Robots on the Market of Means of Production Automation
In the automation means segment of the automation market the most dynamic growth in demand is concerned with industrial robots, making up 4% of the global automation market and 17% of the global automation means market. The article presents results of economic and statistical analysis of the automation means market, and in particular of the industrial robots market, from the global, regional and industrial point of view.

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K. KRASTEL, G. CHROBAK – New Production Tools for Energy-efficient Joining Technology in Automotive Manufacturing
The LaserSeamStepper (laser welding gun), introduced by IPG, is a new laser welding tool which is comparable with a standard resistance spot welding gun. The components are initially pressed together and then welded by laser radiation. The integrated laser safety function greatly facilitates the use of the laser material processing and keeps down high investment costs. Manual guided laser welding and one-sided accessibility extends the range of applications and manufacturing processes. Overlap joints in the automotive industry (car body) as well as planking of space frame structures can be done very cost-effectively on a normal shop floor. A continuous improvement process has taken place since the beginning of car series production with the LSS, the result of close cooperation with different car manufacturers. This results in a highly reliable laser welding tool with an availability of 99.9 percent. Due to the high repeatability of the complete system (fiber laser and LSS module), a very high continuous production quality can be guaranteed without any rework at the manufactured part itself.

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No. 1/2015

J. NIAGAJ, A. JDRUSIAK – The Effect of Shielding Gas Composition and Orbital TIG Welding Parameters on the Dimensions and Quality of Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe Girth Welds
The article presents the results of orbital welding of AISI 304 (1.4301) austenitic stainless steel pipes using a closed welding head. The article-related tests revealed that an increase in a helium content in a shielding gas mixture increases a penetration depth with a little impact on a weld width. It was also found that an increase in welding current and a decrease in a welding rate can ensure full penetration, yet at the same time it can lead to the formation of imperfections in the form of an incompletely filled groove at 9h and 12h and/or an intermittent undercut at 3h. Welded joints of austenitic stainless steel pipes are characterised by the highest concentration of imperfections at 3h and 9h (incompletely filled grooves and intermittent undercuts) regardless of the type of a shielding gas used.

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K. KRASNOWSKI – Concrete-reinforcing Steel Bars - Applications and Fatigue Tests
The article describes the requirements set for concrete-reinforcing steel bars as to their fatigue strength and presents types of fatigue tests as well as examples of test results. The work also describes the effect of selected factors on the fatigue strength of concrete-reinforcing steel bars, demonstrates problems accompanying experimental fatigue tests involving reinforcing bars and presents a fatigue tests methodology enabling the obtainment of valid test results, developed by Instytut Spawalnictwa. The methodology was validated while testing B500SP grade reinforcing bars of diameters restricted within a 8-25 mm range.

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J. CZUCHRYJ, P. IREK – Dye-Penetrant Method Assessment of the Size of Pores in Welded Joints Made of High-Alloy Steel
The article describes the penetrant tests carried out on X5CrNi18-10 high-alloy steel provided with artificial discontinuities, i.e. pores (drilled openings). The tests involved the measurements of indication sizes depending on the time of development and various diameters and depths of openings. The correlations determined enable estimating the depth of pores in welded products made of high-alloy steels. The information obtained should enable decision-making concerning the acceptance of a product for operation or the necessity of repairing it. The tests also involved the determination of an optimum indication development time for high-alloy steels. The article is the continuation of the research works published in editions nos. 4/2012 and 4/2014 of this magazine.

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M. RESTECKA – Robotisation - Global Trend
Higher quality, lower costs, shorter order processing times belong to requirements increasingly commonly set for manufacturers. Presently, progress mainly consists in the automation or robotisation of single processes or of complete production lines. The article presents statistical data and trends concerning the development of robotisation in Poland and worldwide as well as provides examples of robotisation and automation in industrial companies.

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I. JASTRZBSKA, J. SZCZERBA, P. STOCH, R. PROROK, E. ŚNIEEK – Effect of Electrode Coating Type on the Physico-chemical Properties of Slag and Welding Technique
The article presents the results of the physico-chemical tests concerning the properties of various slags formed after welding with low-hydrogen and rutile electrodes as well as flux-cored wires. The slags tested were analysed for their phase compositions using X-ray diffractometry (XRD) X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The behaviour of slags at temperatures elevated to 1400C was examined using a high-temperature microscope. The analysis of the high-temperature tests enabled the determination of slag characteristic temperatures, i.e. softening and melting points. The results obtained demonstrated various properties of slags, with the lowest characteristic temperatures for low-hydrogen slags and the highest characteristic temperatures for flux-cored wire slags. In addition, on the basis of different characteristic temperatures slags were classified in relation to their solidification rates.

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