ISSN 2300-1674

Layout: 2017 | 2016 | 2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012

List of reviewers of scientific papers printed in 2016

No. 6/2016

M. RӯASKI, S. STANO, A. GRAJCAR
Effect of Braze Welding Parameters on the Structure and Mechanical Properties of Joints Made of Steel CPW 800. Part 1: Arc Braze Welding
Presently, the reduction of kerb weight consists in the replacement of previously used structural materials with new ones, characterised by more favourable operating parameters. Advantageous mechanical properties of steel elements are primarily obtained through precise hot treatment performed after cold rolling or, in cases of hot-rolled products, through thermo-mechanical treatment. When subjected to welding, the above-named materials reveal high sensitivity to intense thermal cycles accompanying welding processes. The article presents the results of technological tests concerning the effect of arc weld brazing on the structural and mechanical properties of joints made of multiphase steel CPW 800.

pdf

view


J. NOWACKI, A. SAJEK
Numerical Simulation of the Thermal Cycle of the PAW-MAG Hybrid Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels
The research described in the article was concerned with the possibility of determining time t8/5 using the Finite Element Method. The research-related tests involved a joint made of AHSS S960QL using the PAW-MAG method. Values of time t8/5 were compared in relation to characteristic zones of the joint and constant heat input values. Differences in cooling rates related to the diversified geometry of a joint and the asymmetric distribution of heat proved significant. The research involved the identification of possibilities offered by the Finite Element Method involving space modelling in the examination of the thermal history of any welded joint area. The comparison of the analysed manner of determining time t8/5 with traditional measurement and analytical methods revealed the significant advantage of the FEM consisting in the accurate and complete induction of a cycle in the entire cross-section of the joint in contrast with experimental contact and non-contact methods averaging the measurement on the joint surface or only in the weld axis. In view of differences related to time t8/5 reaching 1.5 seconds in the joint area and the very narrow range of the tolerance concerning the value of the cooling time of AHSS, the Finite Element Method involving the use of space modelling was recognised as a necessary tool when designing welded joints made of Advanced High Strength Steels.

pdf

view


J. CZUCHRYJ
Effect of a Gap between Elements Being Joined on the Fatigue Service Life of Joints Welded on a Steel Backing Strip
In accordance with standard PN-EN ISO 9692-1, when making welded joints using a backing strip, the maximum distance between elements being joined should amount to 15 mm. In certain cases, the use of a gap greater than the normative one could be technically justified. The above-presented issue inspired tests aimed to identify the influence of a gap between elements being joined on the operational service life of these joints. The tests involved the adoption of a fatigue criterion. The article describes results of fatigue tests along with related conclusions.

pdf

view


P. LASKA
Application of Active Thermography in the Quality Control of LaserWelded Overlap Joints
The article presents possibilities of using active thermography as a nondestructive method verifying the quality of laser-welded joints made of steel sheets. The article presents the testing methodology and the preparation of test joints as well as describes a new test rig currently implemented in the company. Thermographic images obtained in the tests were subjected to image analysis processing performed to identify the maximum temperature gradient distribution in the test joints. The thermographic image analysis results were verified by cross-sectional macroscopic tests performed in accordance with currently valid standards. The results obtained in the tests confirmed that the method developed and implemented in the company can be successfully applied when assessing the quality of laser-welded lap joints. The article also includes a brief description of SITECH Ltd.

pdf

view


B. EŚKO
Tests of Hot Crack Resistance Using the Transvarestraint Tests - Specialist Automated Test Rig
The significance of the Transvarestraint test as one of the most reliable tests enabling the assessment of the susceptibility of materials and welds to hot cracking when exposed to imposed strains aimed to assess the susceptibility of steels and welds to solidification cracking as well as research-related needs inspired Instytut Spawalnictwa to develop, design, provide related software and implement an automated test rig examining hot crack susceptibility using the above-named method. The article presents the design and operation of the test rig. The adopted design and software solutions make the station user friendly as regards the entering of all data and welding head movement trajectory as well as the recording of data and measurement results in the form ready to print and archive. The solution also ensures the obtainment of the repeatability of the entire technological process.

pdf

view


L. TUZ, K. PACIKIEWICZ, . RAKOCZY, Z. UREK
Evaluation of the Microstructure of 600 and 617 Nickel Alloys Subjected to Arc Welding
The paper presents results concerning an assessment of the microstructure 600 and 617 nickel alloys. Test alloys delivered as plates were exposed to welding arc applied in the TIG method. The assessment involving the microstructure of the fusion zone, heat affected zone and of the base material was performed using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results revealed significant differences in the structures of the fusion zone in 600 and 617 alloys resulting from various chemical compositions as well as from the significant segregation of the alloying elements between dendrites and interdendritic zones.

pdf

view


A. V. MOLTASOV, P. N. TKACZ, S. I. MOTRUNICZ
Effect of Shunting Zone Plastic Strains on Bend Force during the Butt Welding of Rings
The article is concerned with the development of an analytical method enabling the calculation of force used for the bending of a ring-shaped product during the butt welding allowing for the presence of plastic strains in the shunting zone. The research involved the investigation of principles governing the plastic-elastic strain of curvilinear bars subjected to bending and the development of theoretical foundations enabling the identification of displacements in such bars. The research-related investigation led to the obtainment of analytical equations combining bend force with movements of welding machine fixing clamps, geometrical parameters and physico-mechanical properties of a ring-shaped product material subjected to welding. Using a number of frames as an example, it was demonstrated that plastic strains significantly affected the value of bend force. The calculation results concerning the volume of bend force obtained using the above named analytical method converged with the results obtained using numerical calculations. Appropriate formulas were used to describe the boundaries of elastic and plastic areas of the shunting zone subjected to bending during butt welding. The research resulted in the determination of the critical value of bending force, the exceeding of which led to the deformation of the required geometrical shape of a ring-shaped product subjected to welding.

pdf

view


A. SAWICKI, M. HALTOF
Representation of the Effect of Plasma Column Disturbances on the Static and Dynamic Characteristics of Arcs Described by the Modified Pentegov Model. Part 2: Modelling the Effect of Rapid Disturbances on Electric Arc Characteristics
The article presents universal functions approximating quasi-static characteristics of electric arc with undefined and defined ignition voltage. The above named approximations take into consideration the effect of disturbances on an arc column. The approximations were used to create a modified mathematical Pentegov model of arc characterised by high and low rate of disturbance changes. The simulation of processes in a circuit with electric arc involved the use of the modified Pentegov model with one and two-parameter rapid disturbances. The authors demonstrated the efficiency of the developed modifications of the Pentegov model.

pdf

view


G.M. GRIGORENKO, W.A. KOSTIN, W.W. GOLOVKO, W.W. ZUKOV
Effect of Nanoparticles on the Structure and Properties of Welds Made of High Strength Low-Alloy Steels
The article presents test results concerning the structure of welds made of high strength low-alloy steel 14HGNDC which, in the molten state, was provided with nanoparticles of various refractory compounds including oxides, carbides and nitrides (TiC, TiN, SiC, VC, NbC, TiO2, Al2O3, MgO and ZrO2). The performed tests revealed the effective use of the nano-oxides of titanium (TiO2) and zirconium (ZrO2) enabling the obtainment of high mechanical properties of the weld metal (Rm -708 MPa and 621 MPa, KCV-20 60 J/?m2 and 72,9 J/?m2, a 21 and 19%). The use of a Gleeble 3800 welding cycle simulator made it possible to determine the dependence between temperature ranges of transformations, amount of structural constituents and types of modifying nanoparticles.

pdf

view



No. 5/2016

G.B. MARQUIS
IIW: Developing Global Best Practices for the Fatigue Assessment of Welded Structures
The International Institute of Welding (IIW) acts as the global network of knowledge exchange concerning the joining of materials. One of the working teams, i.e. Committee XIII, is dedicated to new research results and the implementation of innovative technologies in order to avoid fatigue failures in welded structures. Presently, the Committee is developing several new guidelines aimed to increase the fatigue service life of welded structures. One of the guidelines concerned with the frequent use of mechanical treatment is a method of increasing the fatigue strength of welded structures. The article discusses aspects of the above-named guidelines and the unique international IIW collaboration enabling the development of these guidelines.

pdf

view


E. MEISS
DIN 2304: Quality Requirements for Adhesive Bonding Processes
Todays adhesives are high quality products. Their proper use normally leads to a zero--defect-production. If bonding failures nevertheless occur, more than 90% these failures result from failures in the adhesive bonding process and do not result from failures of the adhesive. Precisely in this contradiction (high quality adhesives for a zero-defect-production vs. adhesive bonding failures) DIN 2304 starts to take effect: DIN 2304 implements quality standards for the proper use of adhesives. The standard determines the current state of the art for the organization of a proper realization of adhesive bonding processes in the user-company. Therefore, the quality of the adhesive bonding process will be adapted to the quality of the adhesive production process. In this context. DIN 2304 concerns every adhesively bonded material compound with the main function of transferring mechanical loads, independent from the strength and deformability characteristics as well as the solidification mechanism of the used adhesive. Due to the fact that the OEM Working Group Automotive has decided to implement the standard into their productions, DIN 2304 may rapidly become global - for the automotive producers as well as for their suppliers.

pdf

view


S. KEITEL, U. WOLSKI, U. MCKENHEIM, Ch. SONDERSHAUSEN,
J. MGLITZ
Robot-like MIG Welding Machines for Large Steel Structures
Weld volume, geometry and quality standards in structures in the wind energy sector demand automation. Conventional industrial robots are often infeasible due to safety factors, cost, work space available and the time-consuming programming involved. On the other hand, typical machining tasks such as cutting, arc welding, and ultrasonic testing are so complex that they cannot be mechanised using simple appliances. Small, inexpensive modular machines on rails, known as crawlers, bridge the gap between simple mechanised equipment on the one hand, and industrial robots on the other. They inherit the easy handling and versatility for use even in difficult site conditions from the former, together with the possibility of programming and sensor-controlled movement from industrial robots. The article discusses the possibilities and limitations in this concept by reference to a series of examples from applications.

pdf

view


M. FIEDLER, A. PLOZNER, B. RUTZINGER, W. SCHERLEITNER
Control of Mechanical Properties of High Strength Steels Through Optimized Welding Processes
The cooling time between 800C and 500C, is a crucial factor which determines the properties of welding joints of high strength steels significantly. For field welding, the cooling time t8/5 can be steered by the heat input even if a different wall thickness for the base materials is used. Modern arc processes with reduced heat input allow comparable deposition rates and increases the stability of the strength level due to optimized equipment settings. This paper compares the influence of conventional GMAW processes like short arc, spray arc, GMAW pulse with the new launched processes like PMC (Pulse Multi Control) and others regarding the properties of the weld. Special emphasis is laid on all weld metal and joint welds. From this research, conclusions and recommendations can be derived to optimize welding properties.

pdf

view


J. GRKA, S. STANO
Laser Beam Welding of 10 mm Thick T-joints Made of TMCP Steel
The article presents research on the laser beam welding of 10 mm thick T-joints made of thermomechanically worked high-strength steel S700MC without using a filler metal. The research-related tests involved making single-sided and double-sided welded joints as well as performing non-destructive tests. The quality of joints satisfied the requirements of quality level B according to the PN-EN ISO 13919-1 standard. The single-sided welding performed using a beam power of 11 kW enabled the obtainment of 8 mm deep penetration without noticeable displacements in the web. The double-sided welded joints were characterized by correct geometry; the dimensions of pores present in the weld metal satisfied the maximum pore size criterion specified for quality level B. The weld microstructure was bainitic-ferritic; the hardness of the weld was by about 60 HV1 higher than that of the base material (280 HV1). The HAZ revealed a small decrease in hardness in comparison with that of the base material.

pdf

view


V. van der MEE
Welding of (Super) Duplex Stainless Steels
The article presents and describes in detail duplex steels used in modern sectors of industry (duplex, super duplex, lean duplex and hyper duplex), with particular attention paid to corrosion resistance and primary areas of application. The article also discusses welding-related issues including the preparation of the base material, welding techniques and procedures, requirements concerning heat input as well as pre-weld and post-weld heat treatment. The article emphasizes the growing use of duplex steels, among other things in welded structures, and forecasts their further development.

pdf

view


P. BERNASOVSK, A. PETROV
Two Cases of High Alloy Austenitic Steel Failures
The article presents failures of structures made of austenitic steels. The first part is concerned with accelerated (centrifugally) cast tubes (ϕ 52.6??5.8 mm) made of steel 25-35 CrNi exposed to high temperature and severe reducing environment (ac >> 1). The second part of the article presents test results related to a water meter element and a cooling water pipeline made of austenitic steel. In both cases, a relatively short period of service was accompanied by the appearance of leaks. The tests revealed that the failures were triggered by microbiological corrosion caused by a sulphur reducing bacteria and not by the welding technology applied.

pdf

view


O. OBRUCH, S. JTTNER, G. BALLSCHMITER, M. KHN, K. DRDER
Resistance Welding of Hybrid Structures Made of Fibre-Reinforced Plastics and Steel Using Special Connecting Elements Made of Metal
The article presents a technology used for the thermal joining of composite materials and metal elements, making up hybrid structures, using auxiliary connecting elements. The penetration of the these elements into the composite material was performed using an iterative process assuming the lowest damage to the material. In addition, the article presents primary requirements concerning the welding of auxiliary elements in relation to this process. The article also presents and analyses various joining concepts as well as pays attention to the necessity of providing low heat input to the material aimed to minimise thermal damage to the composites and, as a result thereof, proposes a new approach to spot welding. Finally, the article presents selected solutions taking into consideration the above named aspects as well as describes mechanical properties of joints and welding parameters.

pdf

view


M. HUDYCZ, T. CHMIELEWSKI, D. GOLASKI
Analysis of Distribution of Temperature and Stresses During the Friction Metallisation of AlN Ceramics with Titanium
The article presents the results of the numerical analysis of an AlN-Ti joint obtained during friction welding, where a titanium probe was rubbed frontally into the base of nitride ceramics. The process aimed to create a thin metallic (titanium) coating on the ceramic base enabling its further joining with metals. Until today, the metallisation of ceramics through friction has not been used for the metallisation of ceramics and, as initial tests have proven, this solution can constitute an advantageous alternative to currently used expensive processes of ceramics metallisation. The numerical modelling of the friction of AlN ceramics with titanium enabled the obtainment of information concerning the distribution of temperature fields and stresses on the contact surfaces of the AlN-Ti system during friction. The obtained results will be useful when analysing the mechanism related to the formation of the interpass of the joint connecting the AlN ceramics with z titanium.

pdf

view


J. ADAMIEC
Properties of Laser Welded Finned Tubes Made of Nickel Alloys
The article presents test results concerning properties of ribbed pipes made of the Inconel 625 nickel alloy in terms of their thermal efficiency, resistance to high-temperature corrosion and electrochemical corrosion resistance. It was ascertained that the use of fins as the extension of heat exchange surface increases the thermal efficiency of pipes almost by thrice without compromising high corrosion resistance in flue gas atmosphere and electrochemical corrosion.

pdf

view


K. WOJSYK, M. MACHERZYSKI
Determination of Linear Welding Energy by Measuring Cross-Sectional Areas of Welds
The article proposes the method of estimating heat input to materials by measuring the cross-sectional area of volumes melted during fusion or pressure welding. In addition, the article describes methods presently used to estimate linear energy involving the fixing of wattmeters to arc power sources and referring this energy to the linear dimensions of welds. The article justifies the necessity of changing the approach to methods of calculating linear energy by the development of new welding methods and the launching of new materials sensitive to heat. The introduction of numerous impulse and hybrid (laser-based) welding methods contests the conventional methods of linear energy calculation (illustrated by examples). The article proposes a manner of calculating heat input during spot welding.

pdf

view


S.G. HRYHORENKO, S.W. ACHONIN, W. Ju. BELOUS, R.W. SELIN
Heat Treatment Effect on the Structure and Properties of Electron Beam Welded Joints Made of High-Alloy Titanium
The article presents the specific formation of a joint made of high-strength high-alloy titanium alloy (? + ) subjected to electron beam welding in vacuum. Tests involved the use of Ti-Al-Mo-V-Nb-Cr-Fe-Zr specimens obtained through electron melting. The research involved tests focused on the effect of a welding thermal cycle and post-weld heat treatment on structural-phase transformations in the weld metal and HAZ of welded joints. It was revealed that the weld metal and HAZ were composed of a structure dominated by the metastable phase , which led to the reduction of plasticity and toughness indexes. The improvement of the structure and mechanical properties of electron beam welded joints required the performance of post-weld heat treatment. The best mechanical characteristics of welded joints were obtained after a heat treatment performed in a furnace (annealing at ?=900C for 1 hour and cooling along with the furnace) favouring the obtainment of an almost homogenous structure and the decomposition of metastable phases in the weld and HAZ.

pdf

view


A.A. HOLYAKEVYCH, L.N. ORLOV
Surfacing Performed Using Flux-Cored Wire in Ukrainian Companies
The article describes the experience of extending the service life of various machinery parts by surfacing them with flux-cored wires. High wear resistance during the rolling and straightening of steel is achieved by the formation of a martensitic matrix reinforced with dispersive carbides.

pdf

view


M. BELOEV, N. LOLOV
Some Technological Features of Welding While Building of the Ammonia Tanks

pdf

view


T. PIWOWARCZYK, M. KORZENIOWSKI, A. AMBROZIAK, T. KOWAL,
R. RUTKA, M. KAROLEWSKI
Effect of Pipe Face Preparation on the Quality of Magnetically Impelled Arc Welded Joints
The article presents magnetically impelled arc welding a technology used when making butt joints mainly of elements having circular cross-sections. In addition, the articles indicates issues related to the preparation of pipe faces and its effect on the quality of welds. The research-related experiment involved the use of selected power transmission elements. The research also included the performance of visual, geometry, metallographic, functional and technological tests of the joints as well as the determination of critical imperfections disqualifying the use of welded joints.

pdf

view


Z. MIKNO, M. STPIE
High-Frequency Invertor Welding Machine: Advantages of New Technology
The article presents advantages of inverter welding machines having a high operating frequency of 10 kHz and compares conventional AC 50 Hz welding machines as well as inverter welding machines having an operating frequency of 1 and 10 kHz. The article presents research results obtained within a currently implemented project of Programme of Applied Research (PBS3/B4/12/2015).

pdf

view


A. BICZ, W. BICZ, M. KORZENIOWSKI, T. PIWOWARCZYK
A. AMBROZIAK
Ultrasonic Tests in the Analysis of the Quality of Tubular Welded Elements
The article presents currently used ultrasonic tests of elements having tubular cross-sections, joined by means of various welding methods. In addition, the article discusses various ultrasonic signals in industrial (primarily automatic) applications in relation to selected technological solutions as well as presents existing industrial stations for testing pipes, machinery parts/components and mechanical elements as well as parts connected with the acquisition of ultrasonic signals.

pdf

view


K. KACZMAREK, P. IREK, . RAWICKI, J. SANIA
Detection of Imperfections in Welded Joints Using the Time-of-Flight-Diffraction Technique (TOFD)
The paper presents the results of research on an ultrasonic testing technique known as the time-of-flight-diffraction (TOFD) technique. The research-related tests involved a 10 mm thick MMA welded butt joint containing imperfections in the form of linear slag inclusions. The paper contains TOFD images obtained by scanning the face and the root side of the weld. The TOFD examination results were compared with the results of micro and macroscopic metallographic examinations performed at selected points of the welded joint.

pdf

view


J. PIKUA, M. OMOZIK, T. PFEIFER
TIG Method in the Multiple Repair Welding of Long-Operated Components in the Power Industry
The article presents the results concerning the repair welding of a long-operated waterwall using the mechanized TIG method. The tests were focused on determining the effect of a repair performed in order to remove cracks in welded joints located along flat bars opening on the tube wall side on the structure and hardness of the heat affected zone (HAZ) of a repair welded joint in the waterwall. In addition, the tests investigated the influence of multiple repair welding on the formation of structural notches in the HAZ.

pdf

view


K. LUKSA, M. BEDNAREK
Characteristics and Weldability of Toughened Steels Used for Ballistic Shields
The article characterises selected toughened steels used in the production of ballistic shields, presents standard requirements in terms of the properties and chemical composition of these steels as well as enumerates and discusses guidance on the welding of such steels. The article also presents the results concerning the comparison of the carbon equivalents (Ce) of selected steels used for ballistic shields and preheating temperatures suggested by steel producers. The analysis of collected information revealed that the above named steels should be welded using low-hydrogen processes ensuring the obtainment of a diffusive hydrogen content below 5 cm3 per 100 g of the weld deposit. It was also ascertained that sheets having thicknesses above 30 mm should be subjected to preheating and that interpass temperature should not exceed 200C. In addition, it was determined that welding should be performed using multiple runs and austenitic high-alloy filler metals, preferably G 18 8 Mn and that gas mixture-shielded welding processes should be performed using argon-based mixtures; preferably 82% Ar + 18% CO2 or 92% Ar + 8% CO2.

pdf

view


S. STANO, J. ADAMIEC, J. DWORAK, M. URBACZYK
Laser Welding of T-Joints Made of Thin Austenitic Sheets
The article presents test results concerning the CO2 and Yb:YAG laser welding of thin-walled T-joints made of steel X5CrNi18-10 (steel 304), X6CrNi18-10 (steel 304H) and X15CrNiSi25-21 (steel 310) selected as stainless steels potentially useful in the production of ribbed pipes (finned tubes) intended for operation in boilers of supercritical parameters. Welding tests were performed using two different laser sources, i.e. a CO2 gas laser and a Yb:YAG solid state laser. The tests involved the determination of the appropriate angle of laser beam insertion into the interface of sheets, enabling the obtainment of properly shaped welds. Non-destructive tests classified the joints as representing quality level B in accordance with standard 13919-1. Selected joints were tested for the distribution of alloying constituents in the joint area. It was ascertained that laser welding made it possible to maintain the uniform distribution of alloying constituents without their significant depletion in the weld area. The tests were financed using the funds of project PBS1/A5/13/2012.

pdf

view


A. ŚWIERCZYSKA, J. ABANOWSKI, D. FYDRYCH
Effect of Linear Energy and Microstructure on the Content of Residual Hydrogen in Welded Joints made of Superduplex Steels
The article presents tests concerning the content of retained hydrogen present in FCAW and SAW welded joints made of superduplex steel. The use of various welding technologies resulted in the obtainment of welds having different microstructures and ferrite contents. Measurements of retained hydrogen present in joints (performed using the complete combustion method) revealed various contents of hydrogen in the base material and in the welds subjected to the tests. It was determined that the content of hydrogen in welds made of superduplex steels depends not only on the volumetric content of microstructures but also on their composition and welding linear energy.

pdf

view


L. SZUBERT, J. MATUSIAK, P. SKOCZEWSKI, J. WICIŚLIK
Measurement and Data Processing System for Welding Parameters and Noise Level During Manufacturing Process of Welded Structures
This paper presents the design, technical possibilities and the intended use of a multi-station measurement system for assessing welding process parameters and noise levels. The system is an innovative solution as regards the measurement technique related to welding process parameters and acoustic pressure in production floors. Once implemented industrially, the system enables the monitoring and recording of noise levels in individual work centres as well as the monitoring and recording of technological conditions accompanying the welding of various structures and products.

pdf

view



No. 4/2016

J. MATUSIAK, J. WYCIŚLIK, A. PILARCZYK – I-EcoWelding: Internet system of guidance supporting calculations of welding fumes emissions in welding and allied processes
The article presents a new tool for environmental analyses concerning pollutant emissions, i.e. the I-EcoWelding software programme. This Internet guidance system is an innovative tool supporting the decision-making related to health and safety in production processes and supporting calculations of pollutant emissions into work environment during welding and allied processes. The Internet guidance system helps determine emissions and compositions of welding fumes during fusion welding, resistance welding, vibration welding of thermoplastics, brazing as well as thermal gas and plasma cutting. In addition, the system enables calculating emissions in relation to the entire welding production of a given company, taking into consideration the duration of a technological process or the declared weight of filler metal used.

pdf

view


Z. MIKNO, Sz. KOWIESKI, W. ZHANG – Simulation and optimisation of resistance welding using the SORPAS® software programme
The implementation of new materials such as dual phase (DP) steels, TRIP steels (Transformation Induced Plasticity Steel) and aluminium alloys or joining more complex dissimilar materials (three sheets/plates) having various thicknesses and various chemical compositions pose serious challenges in terms of resistance welding technologies. The article presents the possibilities of the professional SORPAS® software programme used for simulating and optimising resistance welding processes. This software programme assesses the weldability of materials by simulating welding processes and forecasting the final result, including the size of the weld nugget. In addition, the software enables the optimisation of welding processes, the simulation of post-weld joint properties, the assessment of weld quality in terms of microstructural transformations, hardness distribution and strength in specific load conditions as well as makes it possible to determine the field of welding parameters. Available versions of the software are designated as 2D and 3D. The latter version enables the modelling of complex phenomena, e.g. shunting or multi-projection welding.

pdf

view


M. RESTECKA, R. JACHYM – IT systems used for welding process simulations and simulators of thermal-strain cycles
The first part of the article presents an overview of software programmes assisting welding-related engineering works as well as discusses possibilities and advantages related to the use of such programmes. Software programmes available today enable, among other things, the monitoring of welding processes, calculations of temperature distribution, the determination of mechanical and plastic properties, simulations of distributions of residual stresses as well as simulations of transformations triggered by welding thermal cycles. The second part of the article is dedicated to simulators enabling physical simulations of welding processes as well as describes principles of simulations tests and presents advantages related to the use of this technique.

pdf

view


E. TURYK – Qualifying the technology of the aluminothermic welding of tramway rails on the basis of quality assurance system requirements in welding engineering
The article discusses the issue of demonstrating the correctness of a technology dedicated to the aluminothermic welding of tramway rails, recommends that the technology be qualified in accordance with standard PN-EN ISO 15613:2006 concerning the pre-production testing of technologies used when welding atypical joints, proposes the scope of qualification tests and presents test results concerning defective welded joints.

pdf

view


M. RӯASKI, S. STANO, A. GRAJCAR – Laser welding and heat treatment of steel 0H15N7M2J
The article presents the results of tests concerning the mechanical and structural properties of single-spot and twin-spot laser beam welded joints made of a steel strip, the chemical composition of which corresponds to that of steel 0H15N7M2J. In addition, the article presents the comparison concerning the geometry of joints made using the single and twin-spot laser beam. The test joints were subjected to heat treatment involving austenitisation, cold treatment and ageing. The study also involved the comparison of the mechanical and structural properties of the joints subjected and those not subjected to the above named heat treatment.

pdf

view


R. KACZMAREK, K. KACZMAREK, J. SANIA, R. KRAWCZYK – Performing of ultrasonic inspection using TOFD technique in terms of the requirements of related standards
The article concerns the time of flight diffraction testing technique (TOFD), which is, next to the simultaneous TOFD + Phased Array testing, one of the most effective methods of volumetric non-destructive tests. The article discusses the advantages of the TOFD technique as well as the basis of diffraction phenomenon and the formation of imaging signals. In addition, the article presents a TOFD image of a welded joint and describes its characteristic elements. Also, the article discusses the TOFD-related testing standards and analyses their requirements related to welded joints and their acceptance criterion, i.e. the quality level according to PN-EN ISO 5817. The target readers of the article include NDT personnel, inspectors, welding engineers and welding equipment manufacturers wishing to implement an effective tool enabling the detection of welding imperfections.

pdf

view


P. IREK, . RAWICKI, K. KACZMAREK – Dye penetrant testing of welded joints made of nickel and its alloys
The article presents tests involving natural cracks, including measurements of the width of cracks and the profile of their surface roughness. The investigation also involved tests performed in order to observe how a given factor affects development times in penetrant tests as well as to determine what time of development is recommended for nickel and its alloys in order to detect unacceptable welding imperfections (cracks). The article also discusses the effect of penetration times on the duration of development times and sizes of indications in penetrant tests.

pdf

view


R. KRAWCZYK, J. KOZOWSKI – Analysing the effect of changes in overlay weld geometry on test SEP 1390
The article presents issues related to the assessment of the weldability of thick-walled materials used when making welded steel structures. The article also discusses the analysis of test results based on the technological test concerning the weldability of thick-walled structural materials according to the guidelines of SEP 1390. The tests took into consideration the effect of the change in overlay weld geometry on the technological test, and, as a result, the final result of weldability assessment.

pdf

view



No. 3/2016

J. CZUCHRYJ – Methodology of Assessing the Quality of Surfaced Layers on the Basis of Internal Welding Imperfections
In manufactured or refurbished machinery parts, surfaced layers are often characterised by the presence of welding imperfections, usually reducing the active life of equipment and machinery. The development of an appropriate methodology and the specification of assessment criteria concerning the quality of surfaced layers could facilitate the assessment of surfaced elements in relation to their load transferring capability. The article describes tests involving specimens surfaced using various methods, proposes a methodology of testing the quality of overlay welds on the basis of macroscopic observations and specifies criteria to be applied when assessing the above named quality on the basis of established dependences.

pdf

view


P. IREK, . RAWICKI, K. KACZMAREK – Dye Penetrant Testing of Welded Joints Made of Aluminium and its Alloys
The article presents welding imperfections, particularly the most dangerous of them, i.e. cracks, tested using the penetrant method. The tests involved making natural cracks in aluminium alloy AlSi1MgMn. Afterwards, the width of cracks and the profile of roughness were measured. The investigation also involved a series of penetrant tests performed in order to observe how a given factor (crack width, crack surface roughness) affects development times in penetrant tests involving joints made of aluminium and its alloys. The article also presents the determined development time recommended for aluminium and its alloys in order to detect indications originated in cracks as well as analyses penetration times in penetrant tests.

pdf

view


J. PIKUA, K. KWIECISKI, G. POREMBSKI, A. PIETRAS – FEM Simulation of the FSW Process of Heat Exchanger Components
The paper presents results of the FEM simulation of FSW process. The object of the research was a heat exchanger used for cooling of electrical components of propulsion systems. The tests enabled the obtainment of the field of temperature, stresses and displacements during the process and residual stresses and displacements of welded elements after cooling. Knowledge of the thermal conditions of the process, the stress and strain fields were used while designing clamps and pads of a welding stand for the welding of the heat exchanger components.

pdf

view


T. STRITE, A. GUSENKO, M. GRUPP, T. HOULT – Multiple Beam Fibre Lasers Used for Material Processing
Technological processes such as welding, braze welding or surface treatment utilising single-spot laser beams as welding power sources are well known and commonly applied. The improvement of technological processes and quality of treatment are subjects of research in terms of new laser welding technologies. The article presents attempted applications of several laser beams having various parameters in the braze welding of car body sheets, the welding of AlSi-coated high strength steels and in the making of polymer-metal joints.

pdf

view


G. ROGALSKI, D. FYDRYCH, K. PROKOP-STRZELCZYSKA – Effect of the Magnetisation of Covered Electrodes on the Quality and Properties of Underwater Wet Welded Joints
The article analyses the effect of the magnetisation of covered electrodes on the geometry and properties of T-joints with fillet welds made of steel S235JR in watery environment. It was established that as regards the conditions and parameters used in the tests, the magnetisation of electrodes affected the stability of arc burning and the formation of shape-related welding imperfections but it did not influence the microstructure and hardness of the test joints.

pdf

view


R. KRAWCZYK, J. KOZOWSKI – Thick-Walled Materials Weldability Assessment Based on Test SEP 1390
The article presents issues related to weldability assessment concerning thick-walled materials used in the making of steel welded structures. The article describes weldability assessment tests in accordance with the guidelines of test SEP 1390, recommended for thick-walled structural materials exposed to dynamic loads. The objective of the tests involved the assessment of the usefulness of test SEP 1390 when evaluating the weldability of thick-walled structural materials used for welded structures.

pdf

view


O.W. MACHNIENKO, I.W. MIRZOV – Stresses and Strains of Equipment Inside a WWER-1000 Nuclear Reactor
The article concerns the modelling of stresses and strains of the enclosure of the active zone and chamber housing inside a WWER-1000 reactor, taking into consideration welding, heat treatment and the operation of the structure in the conditions of intense radiation. The work presents the input of welding internal stresses and contact stresses into the total stress of the chamber housing inside the reactor vessel. The article-related research involved testing the relaxation of welding internal stresses in the active zone enclosure caused by radiation creep.

pdf

view



No. 2/2016

T. PFEIFER, J. NIAGAJ – Requirements of Quality Assurance Systems concerning the Fabrication of Equipment for Nuclear Facilities
The article discusses requirements formulated in document GS-R-3 issued by the International Atomic Energy Agency and requirements specified in the NSQ-00 (NQSA) and NQA-1(ASME) standards concerning quality assurance related to deliveries of components and services for nuclear power plants.

pdf

view


M. RӯASKI, M. TOPOLSKI – Plasma Welding of Steel CPW 800
The article is concerned with issues related to the plasma welding of steel CPW 800 using titanium and niobium microagents. Plasma welding tests involving sheets subjected to TMCP were performed with various linear energy values. Welded joints were subjected to macro and microscopic metallographic tests, hardness measurements (involving the base material, HAZ and weld) as well as tensile and bend tests. The strength of the welded joints obtained in the tests was greater than that of the base material; a slight increase in the hardness of joint area ensured its relatively high plasticity.

pdf

view


R. KACZMAREK, K. KACZMAREK – Interpretation of Types of Discontinuities in the Ultrasonic Testing of Forgings Using Double Transducer Probes of Various Parameters
The paper presents results of studies demonstrating a significant impact of double transducer probe characteristics on the interpretation of discontinuity types in the ultrasonic quality control of forgings. Double transducer probes are characterised by significant differences in the width of an ultrasonic beam in two mutually perpendicular directions, i.e. perpendicular and parallel to the plane of the separation of probes. These circumstances may lead to the misinterpretation of discontinuities types (point-like/extensive) and thus, to the adoption of inappropriate criteria for the evaluation of indications and, eventually, to the determination of improper sizes of discontinuities mistakenly interpreted as extensive. This article is addressed to NDT personnel performing ultrasonic tests using double transducer probes as well as to those participating in courses preparing for examination according to ISO 9712 in the product sector of forgings.

pdf

view


K. PROKOP, G. ROGALSKI – Cold Cracking Susceptibility of Joints made of Ferritic-Austenitic Duplex Steel 2205 during Underwater Welding
The underwater welding of ferritic-austenitic duplex steels is arousing growing interest inspired by the urgent need for developing welding technologies used for repairing underwater pipelines transporting oil. The tests involved underwater welding using covered electrodes (process 111). The research also involved Tekken technological tests performed under water at a depth of 0.5 m and in air as well as macro and microscopic metallographic tests, ferrite content measurements and hardness measurements of joints. The test results obtained revealed that the underwater welding of duplex steels could lead to cold crack formation. In the case considered above, cold crack susceptibility was attributed to arc burning instability.

pdf

view


S. PAWLAK – Methodology of Non-Destructive Testing of Selected Adhesively Bonded Metal Sheets Using Active Thermography
The article presents the methodology of non-destructive tests of adhesively bonded metal sheets using active thermography, illustrated with an example of selected imperfections related to the application of adhesive. The experimentation involved the design and the making of specimens reflecting actual car body joints with simulated imperfections such as the complete lack of or the insufficient amount of adhesive between two sheets. The research also involved the selection of a measurement technique, the development of a testing procedure and the manner of interpreting thermographic test results in the form of recorded sequences of images. The thermographic tests were performed in a two-sided arrangement, where a specimen was situated between a heat source and a thermographic camera. Such an arrangement enabled the uniform heating of the specimen surface and, as a result, the obtainment of legible images used for determining the maximum temperature contrast. The test results made it possible to assess the size and approximate shape of the layer of adhesive between two sheets of analysed lap joints. This article constitutes the continuation of previously initiated works dedicated to the development of active thermography related to non-destructive tests of permanent joints.

pdf

view


A. SAWICKI, M. HALTOF – Representation of the Effect of Plasma Column Disturbances on the Static and Dynamic Characteristics of Arcs Described by the Pentegov Model. Part 1. Modelling the Effect of One-Parameter Disturbances on Electric Arc Characteristics
The article discusses various types of disturbances affecting an arc column such as changes in length, changes in the intensity of convective heat dissipation using a stream of gas washing around a column, changes in gas atmosphere pressure, and changes in the intensity of laser radiation penetrating the arc. The above named disturbances were included in expressions approximating static current-voltage arc characteristics. The characteristics mentioned above were used to create a number of macromodels based on the Pentegov model of disturbed arcs. The results of processes simulated in an electric circuit were used to demonstrate the usefulness of the models developed and the considerable comfort of such an approach when testing systems with electric arcs.

pdf

view



No. 1/2016

P. SDEK, M. WELCEL, K. KWIECISKI – Vibratory Stabilisation: Constant Development for Industrial Practice
A welding process leaves behind residual stresses in various areas of elements subjected to welding. Residual stresses affect such operational properties as dimensional accuracy and stability, brittle crack resistance, fatigue resistance, corrosion resistance etc. Vibratory stabilisation is a technological process which may lead to the obtainment of structural dimensional stability of similar efficiency as that of stress relief annealing. The attractiveness of vibratory stabilisation results from its low energy-consuming. The article presents a number of opinions concerning the efficiency of this process (including opinions of the authors, having dealt with this issue for many years). An important element of this publication is the presentation of the development of technological systems taking place at Instytut Spawalnictwa, e.g. system SW05A (currently produced and implemented in industry). The design of the above named system is based on the state-of-the-art systems of industrial electronics; dedicated software offers extensive customisation.

pdf

view


Z. MIRSKI, P. CZUDAK – FEM used for Strength-Related Calculations of Adhesive Joints in the Making of Rail Vehicles
The article presents a thick-layer flexible bonding used in railway engineering when making rail vehicles and indicates strength-related requirements for adhesive joints. The FEM was used for testing an adhesive joint between a windowpane and display-mounting brackets. Research-related tests revealed the lack of exceeding acceptable stresses and strains in a tested adhesive joint.

pdf

view


G. WETZEL, T. BRODA, S. KEITEL – Optical Measurement of Spot Resistance Welding Guns
Spot resistance welding processes may be troubled by deviations of electrode positions (contact fault). The article presents this issue in relation to robotic spot welding guns used in high-volume production and manual spot welding guns used in repair works. The article presents the method for optical measurements of the above named welding guns, enabling the determination of an electrode contact fault, as well as compares both types of welding guns in this respect.

pdf

view


M. RESTECKA – Robotic Implementations in Welding Engineering
The effect of robotisation on the competitiveness of enterprises continues to grow; therefore, manufacturers increasingly often purchase industrial robots, making the proper concept of a robotic station even more important. The article presents the present state and development trends in robotisation in Poland and overseas, indicates issues accompanying implementations of welding robots and presents possible preventive measures.

pdf

view


R. KACZMAREK – Adjustment of Parameters for the Ultrasonic Testing of Welded Joints According to Appropriate Standards
The article presents requirements of currently valid standards concerning ultrasonic tests of welded joints with reference to PN-EN ISO 17635:2010, PN-EN ISO 16810:2014, PN-EN ISO 16811:2014 and PN-EN ISO 17640:2011. The article discusses principles governing the selection of ultrasonic probes, a manner of determining allowances for transfer losses and a manner helping adjust an appropriate test level. In addition, the article characterises techniques applied when setting a reference level as well as analyses positions of probes and a number of beam insertion angles when testing butt joints at various testing levels.

pdf

view


M. HALTOF – Non-linear and Parametric Mathematic Models of Electric Arcs
The article describes factors affecting changes of physical parameters of plasma in a column and in near-electrode areas of arc in electro-technological devices. The article also presents the effect of chemical composition and of temperature on the non-linearity of selected characteristics of plasma-creating gases. In addition, the study concerns the effect of the heterogeneity of electrode materials on the non-linearity and parametrisation of near-electrode voltage drops, taken into consideration in the approximation of static characteristics of an arc column. The article also presents selected linear and non-linear models of electric arc columns. Research-related simulation results, in the form of non-linear dynamic characteristics of electric arcs, were highly consistent with experimental data.

pdf

view



Biuletyn Instytutu Spawalnictwa is licenced under

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 License

  • © Instytut Spawalnictwa